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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
An infant's distressed reaction to the departure of the familiar caregiver.
Separation anxiety
A set of expectations derived from early care-giving experiences concerning the avalibility of attachment figures their likelihood of providing support during times of stress, and the self's interaction with thoes figures. Becomes a model, or guide, for all future close realtionships
Internal working model
The make-believe play with others that is under way by age 2 1/2. Includes more complex combos of schemes/sophisticated understanding of roles and relationships.
sociodramatic play
Actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
Altruistic behavior
What does a preschooler think friendship is?
Someone who likes you and spends a lot of time playing with.
An information processing approach to gender typing that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features to explain how environmental pressures and children's cognitions together shape gender-role development.
Gender schema theory
Evaluating possible courses of ction to determine which one is fair and just.
Moral judgement
using cause-effect reasoning and perspective talking to predict how one's actions are likely to affect others, resulting in awareness tht a situation involves a moral issue.
Moral sensitivity
A form of true social participation, in which children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme or working on the same project.
Cooperative play
A form of true social participation, in which children are engaged in separarte activities but interact by exchanging toys and commenting on one another's behavior.
Associative play
Unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
Nonsocial play
A form of limited social participation in which the child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior.
Parallel play
Promoted by parental warmth and gentle encouragement can help to defer toddler's opposition to adult directives, and help them react with an eager, willing spirit
Autonomy in toddlers
The aspect of self-concept that involves judgements about ones own worth and the feelings associated with thoes judgements.
A form of mild punishment in which children are removed from the immediate setting until they are ready to act appropriately.
Relying on a trusted person's emotional reaction to decide how to respond in an uncertain situation.
Social refrencing
The strong, affectionate tie we feel for special people in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress.
Name some different behaviors associated with attachment.
smile when mother walks into the room, pats her face, explores her hair. When afaraid, he crawls into her lap and clings closely.
Causes of difficulties of babies in institutions.
They have emotional difficulties because they failed to form a bond with one or a few adults. They have an excessive desire for adult attention, overfriendliness to unfamiliar adults and peers, and few friendships.
Strategies for adjusting our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
Emotional self-regualtion
What is the divorce rate in the US and how does it compare?
Highest among industrialized countries of the world. 45% of american marriages end in divorce, and 1/2 of thoes involove children.
A self esteem that divides performance into language arts, math, and other subjects.
Academic self-worth
A self-esteem that divides into peer and parental relationships
Social self-worth
A self-esteem that deals with skills at various sports
Physical/athletic competence
Name the 4 self esteems.
Academic, social, physical/athletic, and physical apperence
The ability to understand and feel w/that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way.
When do most school phobias occur?
From ages 11 to 13
The process of developing gender roles, or gender-linked prefrences and behaviors valued by the larger society.
Gender typing
Peers who form a social unit by generating shared values and standards of behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers.
Peer groups
A stable ordering group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises
Dominance hierarchy
Attributions that credit success to luck and failure to low ability . Leads to anxious loss of control in the face of challenging tasks.
Learned helplessness
An appraoch to coping with stress that is internal, private, and aimed at controlling negative emotion when little can be done anout an outsome.
Emotion-centerd coping
Attributions that credit success to high ability and failure to insufficient effort. Lead to high self-esteem and a willingness to approach challenging tasks.
Mastry-oriented attributions