Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemotherapeutic agent
Used in relatively low doses
synthetic or natural
Antibiotics affecting Cell Wall
vancomycin, bacitracin, penicillins, cephalosporins
antibiotics affecting cell membrane
polymyxin, nystatin, amphoteracin B, imidazole
sulfa drugs, trimethoprim, 5-Fluorocytosine
Antibiotics affecting nucleic acid
Rifampin, Fluoroquinalones
Antibiotics affecting protein synthesis
Tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clindamycin
Prophylaxis of infection w/ antibiotics
1) Usually doesn't work
2) accounts for a large portion of misuse
3) Possible examples where prophylaxis works: rucurrent UTIs, some surgeries.
FDA ban of Baytril
1) caused emergence of resistant bacteria (Campy)-- food poisoning in people
2) first vet drug to be banned because it leads to the emergence of resistant bacteria
Biochemical Mechanisms of Resistance
1)Metabolism to an inactive chemical
2) change in the target site
3) reduction in cellular transport
4) Enhanced efflux
5) Increased level of a competitive antagonist
Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics
1) Inherent resistance-- general pattern is predictable
2) Acquired resistance-- adaptation ot the toxicity of antibiotics
Genetic basis of acquired resistance
1) spontaneous mutations
2) acquisition of resistance by the transfer of genetic information-- conjugation, transduction, transformation (ability of microboes to take up DNA from environment and incorperate into genome or plasmid)
3) Note: antibiotics are not mutagen
Host determinants of response to antibiotics
1) status of the immune system
2) age
3) hepatic/renal disorders
4) Effects of local environment (ph, pus, low O2; barrier to distribution: inflammation, debris, fibrous tissue)
Evaluating the response of antimicrobials
1) evidence of improvement: 48-72 hrs
2)Therapeutic failure-- enhancing antimicrobial efficacy: start early, proper dose and duration, sensitivity testing
Synthesis of bacterial cell wall
1) synthesis of basic building blocks
2) PTG formation
3) linking and crosslinking of PTG units