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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that bind the atoms together
Chemical Bond
chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations (main group metals) and anions (nonmetals)
Ionic Bond
results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
Covalent Bond
The degree to which bonding between atoms of two elements is ionic or covalent can be estimated by
calculating the difference in electronegativity
- covalent bond in which the bonded electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge
Non-polar covalent Bond
uneven distribution of charge
covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons (0.3-1.7)
Polar covalent bond
a neutral group of atoms hat are held together by covalent bonds
a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
molecular compound
indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
Chemical Formula
shows the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular bond
molecular formula
a molecule containing only two atoms
diatomic molecule
- the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy (average distance between two bonded atoms)
bond length
the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
bond energy
Octet Rule
chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
an electron configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element’s symbol
Electron Dot Notation
pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
lone pair (unshared pair)
formulas in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
Lewis structures
indicates the kind, number, arrangement and bonds but not the unshared pairs of the atoms in a molecule
Strucural Formula
covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
single bond
a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
double bond
covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
triple bond
double and triple bonds
multiple bonds
Double bonds are shorter and have _ bond energy
triple bonds are stronger and higher than ___
double bonds
bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
ionic compound
the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established
formula unit
the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
lattice energy
Molecular compounds melt at low temperature because
the forces of attraction between molecules is weak
Ionic are higher __ and __ Ionic compounds are hard but brittle
melting and boiling points
charged group of covalently bonded atoms
polyatomic ion
the chemical bonding that result form the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
metallic bonding
the ability of a substance to be pounded into thin sheets
ability of a substance to be drawn into wire
uneven distribution of molecular charge
molecular polarty
repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible
VSEPR theory
Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion
the forces of attraction between molecules
The higher boiling point, the stronger forces between particles
intermolecular forces
created by equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
- the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
hydrogen bonding
the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles
London dispersion forces