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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A liguid forms when a gas________
A liquid forms at a very _____ _____ and/or ____ _____
Avg. intermolecular attraction> average kinetic energy.
molecules are ________
and are in constant motion. some molecules have enough energy to slide past each other.
low temperature or high pressure
Liquid properties:
surface tension
capillary action
Liquids are hard to compress. they are ____
and resist moving closer
close together
High viscosity=
low viscosity ex
high viscosity ex
low flow
____ viscosity is caused by:
• Large intermolecular attractions.
• Large entanglement of molecules
higher T=
lower viscosity
• It takes energy to move past another molecule.
• Increase in T = increase in average Ek.
• Greater fraction of the molecules have enough Ek to slide
past each other (overcome intermolecular forces).
low viscosity
Liquid molecules attract each other.
Molecules at a surface experience
unbalanced forces. They are not as
well stabilized;
energy required to form a surface
surface tension
smaller surface area=
large intermolecular forces=
higher stability
high surface tension
The object with the smallest surface/volume ratio is a
___ forces between a surface and a liquid.
____forces between liquid molecules.
The shape of the ___tells us the relative
strength of the adhesive and cohesive forces
The tendency to vaporize is a liquid’s ____.
as temperature ___, a liquid becomes more volatile
at some time evaporation rate= __ rate
Equilibrium vapor pressure depends upon:
1. intermolecular forces in the liquid
2. temperature
it is independent of the:
v of the liquid or vapor
surface area of the liquid
a liquid boils when the vapor P= ____ P
atmospheric pressure
Evaporation is ___
condensation is__
the heat required to completely vaporize one mole of a substance at its boiling point
molar heat of vaporization
the heat released when one mole of a substance condenses at its boiling point
molar heat of condensation
in a solid:
molecules are ___
and in constant motion

donot have enough energy to slide past each other
melting is
freezing is
the heat required to melt one mole of a substance at its melting point
molar heat of fusion
the heat released when one mole of a substance cystallizes at its melting point
molar heat of crystallization
three phases in equilibrium
triple point
the end of the liquid/gas equilibrium line. It occurs at the critical temperature and critical pressure
critical point
above the critical temperature the substance is neither a liquid nor a gas.
it is a supercritical fluid
has a density similar to a liquid and a viscosity similar to a gas
supercritical fluid
can absorb/release large amounts of heat-moderates temperature
specific heat capacity
heat release on freezing protects crops
heat of fusion
water vapor contains large amounts of energy; heat release on condensation fuels storms
heat of vaporization
helps capillary action in plants
surface tension
fast energy transfer, rapid cooling of organisms
thermal conductivity
long-range order; sharp melting points; they relfect on the shape of the lattice
examples: ice,table salt, gems
crystalline solid
no regular repeating units; melt over a range of temperature; examples: glass,plastics,ceramics
amorphous solid
ionic forces hold positive and negative ions together. hard, brittle, high mp, often water soluble
ionic solids
metallic bonding; electrostatic attraction between metal ions and electrons. Malleable, ductile, good heat/electrical conduction, wide range of hardness and mp
metallic solids
london forces, dipole/dipole attraction, and hydrogen bonding. low to moderate, soft, poor conductors
molecular solids
covalent bonds hold atoms in infinite arrays, wide range of properties; diamonds; graphite
the smallest part of a lattice that can be used to construct the full lattice is the
unit cell
the atoms in a layer sit at the corners of the squares

simple cubic
an extra atom sits in the center of the cell(unshared)
8*1/8 +1=2 68% of the space is occupied
cubic cells
each face has 1 atom in the center


74% of the space is filled by atoms
face-centered cubic
have one valence electron, in s orbital
alkali metals
formed by the interaction of low-lying, empty atomic orbitals
conduction band
valence and conduction bands overlap. lots of open levels. electrons can move freely
filled valence band;large band gap, electrons cannot jump the gap no conduction
filled valence band. narrow band gap. some electrons can jump the gap.. higher temperature= more energetic electrons=better conductor
Metals are better conductors at low T. superconductors have zero resistance at some temperatures
exs of amorphous solids
cement, concrete,cermaics,silicate ceramics,