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67 Cards in this Set

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organic chem
stdy of most carbon containing compounds
inorganic chem
study of nonorganic compounds. many of which have organic fragments bonded to metals
physical chem
study of properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
analytical chem
the identification of components and composition of materials
bio chemistry
study of substances and processes occurring in liviing things
theoretical chem
use of math and copmuters to understand the principles behind chemical behavior + to design and predict the props of new compounds
chemical
any substance that has a defined composition
mass
measure of matter
matter
that which has mass and occupies space; "an atom is the smallest indivisible unit of matter"
atom
smallest particle of an element that retains chmical properties of it.
element
one of a class of substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.
compound
a thing that is composed of two or more separate elements; a mixture
physical property
a property used to characterize physical objects
physical change
change in apperance not composition
change of state
ex. from liguid to gas
solid
molecules very dense
liquid
molecules less dense
gas
molecules very less dense
plasma
A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and most atoms are ionized.
chemical property
a property used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity
chemical reaction
A change in the arrangement of atoms or molecules to yield substances of different composition and properties.
reactant
A starting material in a chemical reaction
group
down in periodic table
family
across in periodic table
period
down in period table
SI units
common metric system used in science for scientists
weight
the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity
volume
the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object
density
mass/volume
scientific notation
a shorthand way of writing very large or very small numbers. A number expressed in scientific notation is expressed as a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10.
directly proportional
a relationship in which one variable goes up if the other goes up, and down if the other goes down.
inversley proportional
a relationship in which one variable goes up as the other goes down
monoatomic ion
positive cations-metals-loose electrons
negative anions-nonmetals-gain electrons
polyatomic ion
a many atom ion (poly means many) which acts chemically as one unit.
binary ionic compound
ionic compound with only 2 kinds of atoms
binary molecular compound
covalent compound with only 2 kinds of atoms (metals)
ternary+higher compounds
all contain a PoLYATOMIC ion,
tighly bound group of atoms that act like a unit and usually carry a negative charge
usually end in "ate" or "ite"
atomic number
The number of protons in a nucleus. It determines the chemical properties of an element.
isotope
same amount of protons, different ammnt of nuetrons
mass number
summ of protons and nuetrons
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturaly occuring isotopes
mole
SI unit, amount of substance
Avogadros Number
6.02 X 10(23) , # of particles
molar mass
mass in grams, of one mole of substance
stoichiometry
the calculation of chemical quantities in chemical reactions
law of conservation of mass
amount of reactants=mass of products
empirical formula
the simplest whole # ratio of elements in a compound (reduced)
Molecular formula
the ACTUAL whole # ratio of elements in a whole compound
law of definite proportions
chemical compound that contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the sample or source of the compound.
law of multiple proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same 2 elements then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole #'s
qualitative observations
general observation ex. changed color
quantitative observation
observation including amount,ect. ex. 5.0g H reacted with something
accuracy
is how close to a true value a measurement is
precision
is how well a # of independant measurements agree w/ each other
rule for addition/subtraction
round answer so that it has the same # decimal places as the least presice measurement
Rule for multiplication/division
round of the answer so that it has the same # of sig. figs as the measurement with the least amount of sig.figs.
conversion factor
a ratio derived from the equality of 2 different units.
Thomson
all cathode rays are composed of identical negitivley charged particles-nuetrons
Milikan
measure charge of electron through the oil drop
Rutherford
gold foiil hit with alpha particles-nucleus deflected them
SI length
meter
SI mass
kg
SI volume
cubic meter
SI density
Kg per cubic meter
props of metalliods
conductors or insulators
3-12 transition metals
props of nonmetals
insulators (dont conduct)
non ductile
props of Metals
shiny
mettaloids
conductors
ductile