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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reaction intermediates
a reaction may have several steps involved in the formation and decay transient chemical species
simple sugars that are either aldehydes or ketones with 2 or more hydroxyl groups
2 sugars that differ in configuration around one carbon atom
the interconversion of the alph and beta anomers
isomeric forms of monosaccharides that differ only in the configuration about the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon
anomeric carbon
the hemiacetal or carbonyl carbon
reducing sugars
sugars capable of reducing ferric or cupric ion
reducing end
the end of a chain with a free anomeric carbon
a carbohydrate consisting of two convalently joined monosaccharide units or residues
short chains of several monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
polysaccharide or glycan
a linear or branched polymer of monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds
contain a single type of monomer
contain 2 or more different monomers
the phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules
interediary metabolism involving the energy-requiring biosynthesis of cell components fro smaller precursor molecules
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
is the major connecting link, the shared intermediate, between the catabolic and anabolic components of this network
the catabolic pathway by which a molecule of glucose (a hexose)is broken down into 2 molecules of the 3-Carbon compound, pyruvate
a simple sugar with a backbone containing 6 carbons
a simple sugar with a backbone containing 5 carbons
hepatocytes(liver) contain a form of hexokinase called hexokinase D; differs in kinetic and regulatory properties
substrate level phosphorylation
involves soluble enzymes and chemical intermediates
enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group from one position to another in the same molecule
enzymes that interconvert steroisomers or structural or positonal isomers
the general term for the anaerobic degradation of glucose or other organic compounds to obtain energy
occuring in the absence of air or oxygen
requiring or occuring in the presence of air or oxygen
the metabolic condition in which the supply of oxygen is severely limited, such as vigorously contracting skeletal muscle
describe the outer membrane of a mitochondria
can be penetrated by small molecules and ions
describe the inner membrane of a mitochondria
cannot be penetrated by most small molecules and ions esp. H+
free energy
amount of energy available to do work in a chemical reaction
release of energy and is negative
gain of energy and is positive
respiration linked phosphorylation
involves membrane bound enzymes and transmembrane gradients of protons
the biosynthesis of a carbohydrate (glucose) from simpler, non-carbohydrate precursors such as pyruvate
an inorganic ion or a coenzyme required for enzymatic activity
an organic cofactor required for the action of certain enzymes; often containing a vitamin or vitamin derivative as a component
prosthetic group
a metal ion or an organic compound (other than a amino acid) that is covalently bound to a protein and is essential for its activity
the protein portion of an enzyme exclusive of any organic or inorganic cofactor or prosthetic groups that might be required for activity
a catalytically active enzyme including all necessary subunits, prosthetic groups, and cofactors
active site
the distinguishing feature of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is that it occurs within the confines of a pocket on or in the enzyme
the molecule that is bound at the active site
describe what enzymes do in a chemical reaction
increase the rate of a reaction while lowering the activation energies
describe what enzymes dont do in chemical reaction
enzymes do not affect the reaction equilibria
anaplerotic reaction
an enzyme catalyzed reaction that can replenish the supply of intermediates in the TCA cycle