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44 Cards in this Set

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reaction intermediates
a reaction may have several steps involved in the formation and decay transient chemical species
monosaccharides
simple sugars that are either aldehydes or ketones with 2 or more hydroxyl groups
epimers
2 sugars that differ in configuration around one carbon atom
mutarotation
the interconversion of the alph and beta anomers
anomers
isomeric forms of monosaccharides that differ only in the configuration about the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon
anomeric carbon
the hemiacetal or carbonyl carbon
reducing sugars
sugars capable of reducing ferric or cupric ion
reducing end
the end of a chain with a free anomeric carbon
disaccharide
a carbohydrate consisting of two convalently joined monosaccharide units or residues
oligosaccharides
short chains of several monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds
polysaccharide or glycan
a linear or branched polymer of monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds
homopolysaccharides
contain a single type of monomer
heteropolysaccharides
contain 2 or more different monomers
catabolism
the phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules
anabolism
interediary metabolism involving the energy-requiring biosynthesis of cell components fro smaller precursor molecules
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
is the major connecting link, the shared intermediate, between the catabolic and anabolic components of this network
glycolysis
the catabolic pathway by which a molecule of glucose (a hexose)is broken down into 2 molecules of the 3-Carbon compound, pyruvate
hexose
a simple sugar with a backbone containing 6 carbons
pentose
a simple sugar with a backbone containing 5 carbons
glucokinase
hepatocytes(liver) contain a form of hexokinase called hexokinase D; differs in kinetic and regulatory properties
substrate level phosphorylation
involves soluble enzymes and chemical intermediates
mutase
enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group from one position to another in the same molecule
isomerases
enzymes that interconvert steroisomers or structural or positonal isomers
fermentation
the general term for the anaerobic degradation of glucose or other organic compounds to obtain energy
anaerobic
occuring in the absence of air or oxygen
aerobic
requiring or occuring in the presence of air or oxygen
hypoxia
the metabolic condition in which the supply of oxygen is severely limited, such as vigorously contracting skeletal muscle
describe the outer membrane of a mitochondria
can be penetrated by small molecules and ions
describe the inner membrane of a mitochondria
cannot be penetrated by most small molecules and ions esp. H+
free energy
amount of energy available to do work in a chemical reaction
exergonic
release of energy and is negative
endergonic
gain of energy and is positive
respiration linked phosphorylation
involves membrane bound enzymes and transmembrane gradients of protons
gluconeogenesis
the biosynthesis of a carbohydrate (glucose) from simpler, non-carbohydrate precursors such as pyruvate
cofactor
an inorganic ion or a coenzyme required for enzymatic activity
coenzyme
an organic cofactor required for the action of certain enzymes; often containing a vitamin or vitamin derivative as a component
prosthetic group
a metal ion or an organic compound (other than a amino acid) that is covalently bound to a protein and is essential for its activity
apoenzyme
the protein portion of an enzyme exclusive of any organic or inorganic cofactor or prosthetic groups that might be required for activity
holoenzyme
a catalytically active enzyme including all necessary subunits, prosthetic groups, and cofactors
active site
the distinguishing feature of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is that it occurs within the confines of a pocket on or in the enzyme
substrate
the molecule that is bound at the active site
describe what enzymes do in a chemical reaction
increase the rate of a reaction while lowering the activation energies
describe what enzymes dont do in chemical reaction
enzymes do not affect the reaction equilibria
anaplerotic reaction
an enzyme catalyzed reaction that can replenish the supply of intermediates in the TCA cycle