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20 Cards in this Set

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System
specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation

--when you observe a reaction in a test tube, the test tube and its contents form a system
Scientific Method
logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories that are supported by data
Hypothesis
testable statement
Model
in science is more than a physical object; it is often an explanation of how phenomena occur and how data or events are related

--may be visual, verbal, or mathematical
Theory
a broad generalization that explains a body of facts or phenomena
Quantity
something that has magnitude, size, or amount

--not the same as measurement; quantity represented by a teaspoon is volume
SI
scientists all over the world have agreed on a single measurement system called Le Systeme International de Unites
Weight
a measure of the gravitational pull on matter
Derived units
combinations of SI base units
Volume
the amount of space occupied by an object
Density
the ratio of mass to volume

MASS DIVIDED BY VOLUME

D=M/V
Conversion factor
a ration derived from the equality between two different units that can be used to convert from one unit to the other
Dimensional analysis
mathematical technique that allows you to use units to solve problems involving measurements
Accuracy
refers to the closeness of measurements to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured
Precision
refers to the closeness of a set of measurements of the same quantity made in the same way
Percentage error
is calculated by subtracting the accepted value form the experimental value, dividing the difference by the accepted value, and then multiplying by 100

PE = Ve - Va / Va X 100
Significant figures
in a measurement consist of all the digits known with certainty plus one final digit, which is somewhat uncertain or is estimated
Scientific notation
numbers are written in the form M x 10^n--where the factor M is a number greater than or qual to 1 but less than 10 and is a whole number

65000 = 6.5 x 10^4
Directly proportional
to each other if dividing one by the other gives a constant value

--if the masses and volumes of diff. samples of aluminum are measure, the masses and vulumes will be directly proportional to each other
Inversely proportional
two quantities are ----- to each other if their product is constant