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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hypotonic solution
solution with:
higher concentration of water,
lower concentration of solute
isotonic solution
solution with:
equal concentration of water,
equal concentration of solute
hypertonic solution
solution with:
lower concentration of water,
higher concentration of solute
the diffusion of water from an area of high concentration of water to and area of low concentration of water
two nature-existing forms (structures) of the same element
ex: diamond and graphite
ionic bond
electrostatic attraction between two oppositely-charged ions
metal + non-metal
covalent bond
two oppositely-charged ions sharing electrons
non-metal + non-metal
formula unit
unit of ionic bond
unit of covalent bond
atoms with same number of protons, different number of neutrons
the path that an electron follows as it moves around the nucleus
the probability of finding electrons in certain regions of an atom
electron spin
how an electron turns (clockwise/counterclockwise) in order to create an energy field
electron configuration
distribution of electrons among the orbitals of an atom
Hund's Rule
electrons occupy equal energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results
Pauli Exclusion Principle
an orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, which must spin in opposite directions
Aufbau Principle
electrons are added one at a time to the lowest energy orbitals available until all electrons are accounted for
orbital diagram
representation of an atom in which arrows in boxes show the electron configuration of an atom
static equilibrium
numbers don't change
indivdual things don't change
dynamic equilibrium
numbers don't change
individual things do change
equilibrium constant: ratio between products and reactants
reaction quotient: ratio between products and reactants not measured at equilibrium
chemical equilibrium
state at which the amounts of reactants and products are constant, because the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
Keq remains constant... long as temperature does not change
Q < Keq
reaction will proceed in forward direction
Q > Keq
reaction will proceed in reverse direction
Arrhenius acids
form hydronium ions (H3O+) in water
Arrhenius bases
form hydroxide ions (OH-) in water
Bronsted-Lowry acids
proton donors
Bronsted-Lowry bases
proton acceptors
amphiprotic/amphoteric substance
substance that can act as both an acid and a base
(ex: H2O)