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67 Cards in this Set

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Choose the appropriate answer:
A: Law of Definite Composition
B: High dielectric constant
C: van der Waals forces
D: Graham's Law of Diffusion (Effusion)
E: Triple point

At a particular temperature and pressure, three states of a compound coexist.
E: Triple point
The triple point of a phase diagram shows that all three states can exist at this point.
Choose the appropriate answer:
A: Law of Definite Composition
B: High dielectric constant
C: van der Waals forces
D: Graham's Law of Diffusion (Effusion)
E: Triple point

Water is a good solvent.
B: High dielectric constant
The high dielectric constant of waters
is due to the polar nature of the water molecules.

It is this property that is largely responsible for
the ability of water to dissolve so many solutes.
Choose the appropriate answer:
A: Law of Definite Composition
B: High dielectric constant
C: van der Waals forces
D: Graham's Law of Diffusion (Effusion)
E: Triple point

The rate of movement of hydrogen gas compared to oxygen gas is 4:1.
D: Graham's Law of Gaseous Diffusion (or Effusion)
According to Graham's Law of Gaseous Diffusion (or Effusion),
the rate of diffusion is inversely proportional
to the square root of the molecular weight.
Choose the appropriate answer:
A: Law of Definite Composition
B: High dielectric constant
C: van der Waals forces
D: Graham's Law of Diffusion (Effusion)
E: Triple point

The molecules of nitrous oxide and nitrogen dioxide
differ by a multiple of the mass of one oxygen.
A: Law of Definite Composition
The Law of Definite Composition states that when compounds form,
they always form in a ratio of 1:8 of hydrogen to oxygen by mass.

For nitrous oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2),
the difference in molecular mass is one atomic mass of oxygen.
Choose the most appropriate answer:
A. Hydrogen bond
B. Ionic bond
C. Polar covalent bond
D. Pure covalent bond
E. Metallic bond

The type of bond between atoms of K and Cl
in crystal of KCl is:
B: Ionic bond
Potassium and cholorine have a large enough difference
in their electronegativities to form ionic bonds.

The respective positions of these two elements
in the periodic chart
also are indicative of the large difference in their electronegativity values.
Choose the most appropriate answer:
A. Hydrogen bond
B. Ionic bond
C. Polar covalent bond
D. Pure covalent bond
E. Metallic bond

The type of bond between the atoms in a nitrogen molecule is:
D: Pure covalent bond
Two atoms of an element that forms a diatomic molecule ALWAYS
have a pure covalent bond between them since the electron attraction or electronegativity of each atom is the same.
Choose the most appropriate answer:
A. Hydrogen bond
B. Ionic bond
C. Polar covalent bond
D. Pure covalent bond
E. Metallic bond

The type of bond between the atoms in a molecule of CO2
(electonegativity difference = 1) is:
C: Polar covalent bond
Electronegativity differences between 0.5 and 1.7 are usually
indicative of polar covalent bonds
since the bonds are symmetrical in the molecule.
Choose the most appropriate answer:
A. Hydrogen bond
B. Ionic bond
C. Polar covalent bond
D. Pure covalent bond
E. Metallic bond

The type of bond between the atoms of calcium in a crystal of calcium is:
E: Metallic bond
Calcium is a metal
and forms a metallic bond between atoms.
True or False?

The structure of SO3 is shown by using more than one structural formula.
True
Sulfur trioxide is shown by three structural formulas
because each bond is a "hybrid"
of a single and a double bond.
True or False?

The structure of SO3 is shown by using more than one structural formula
BECAUSE SO3 is very unstable
and resonates between these possible structures.
False
Resonance in chemistry does NOT mean
that the bonds resonate between the structures
shown in the structural drawing.
True or False?

Boric acid is a strong acid.
False
Boric acid is a WEAK acid, because it ionizes only SLIGHTLY.
True or False?

Boric acid cannot be kept in a glass bottle.
False
Hydrofluoric acid is the acid that reacts with glass.
True or False?

The elements in the upper right portions of the periodic chart are mostly nonmetal.
True
True or False?

Nonmetallic elements have close to filled outer energy levels.
True
Nonmetal:
an element whose oxide reacts with water to form an acid and
that takes on electrons and acquires a negative valence.
True or False?

Hydrosulfuric acid is often used in qualitative tests because it is a weak acid.
False
Hydrosulfuric acid is a weak acid, but is used in qualitative tests
because of the distinctly colored precipitates of sulfides
that it forms with many metallic ions.
True or False?

Molecules of sodium chloride go into solution in water as ions.
False
Sodium chloride is an ionic crystal, not a molecule.
True or False?

In sodium chloride,
the sodium has a +1 charge and the chloride has a -1 charge
and they are hydrated by the water molecules.
True
Sodium chloride's ions are hydrated by the polar water molecules.
True or False?

In an equilibrium reaction,
if the concentration of the reactants is increased,
the reaction will increase its forward rate
BECAUSE when a stress is applied to a reaction in equilibrium,
the equilibrium shifts in the direction that opposes the stress.
True
Le Chatelier's Principle:
If stress is placed on a system in equilibrium,
the system will react in the direction that relieves the stress.
The ^H reaction of a particular reaction can be arrived at by
the summation of the ^H reaction values of two or more reactions that,
added together, give the ^H reaction of the particular reaction
BECAUSE the First Law of Thermodynamics states that
the total energy of the universe is a constant.
True
First Law of Thermodynamics:
total energy of the universe is constant and cannot be created or destroyed.
In a reaction that has both a forward and a reverse reaction,
A+B<>AB,
when only A and B are introduced into a reacting vessel,
the forward reaction rate is the highest at the beginning
and begins to decrease from that point until equilibrium is reached.
True
At equilibrium,
the forward reaction and reverse reaction stop
BECAUSE the reactants and product have reached the equilibrium concentrations.
False
The forward and reverse reactions are occurring at equal rates when equilibrium is reached.
The reactions do NOT stop.
The concentrations remain the same at this point.
The hybrid orbital form of carbon in acetylene is believed to be the "sp" form
BECAUSE it is a linear compound with a triple bond betwen the carbons.`
True
Since acetylene is known to be a linear molecule with a triple bond between the two carbons, the "sp" orbitals along the central axis with the hydrogens bonded on either end fit the experimental evidence.
The weakest of the bonds between molecules are coordinate covalent bonds
BECAUSE they represent the weak attractive force of the electrons of one molecule
for the positively charged nucleus of another.
False
The weakest bonds between molecules are called van der Waals forces.
Define van der Waals forces.
Weak attractive forces existing between molecules.
A saturated solution is not necessarily concentrated
BECAUSE dilute and concentrated are terms that relate only to the relative amount of sollute dissolved in the solvent.
True
The terms dilute and concentrated merely indicate
a relatively large amount of solvent and a small amount of solvent, respectively.
You can have a dilute saturated solution if the solute is only SLIGHTLY soluble.
Lithium is the most active metal in the first group of the periodic chart
BECAUSE it has only one electron in the outer energy level.
False
Caesium (Cs) is the most active Group 1 metal
BECAUSE it has the largest atomic radius,
thus making it easier to lose its outer energy level electron.

the intermediate electrons help screen the positive attraction of the nucleus,
also increasing the ease with which the outer electron is lost.
The anions migrate to the cathode in an electrochemical reaction
BECAUSE positively charged ions are attracted to the negatively charged cathode.
False
the cations are positively charged ions and migrate to the cathode,
while the anions are negatively charged
and migrate to the anode.
The combining of a saturated hydrocarbon with an unsaturated hydrocarbon is known as:
alkylation.
A process by which hydrogen is made to combine with another substance, usually organic, in the presence of a catalyst is known as:
hydrogenation.
The separation of the components in a mixture of liquids having different boiling points by vaporization is known as:
fractional distillation.
The process of combining several molecules to form one large molecule (polymer)
is known as:
polymerization.
The reaction of two molecules by loss of a molecule of water is known as:
condensation polymerization.
Name four types of reactions.
1. combination (synthesis)
2. decomposition (analysis)
3. single replacement
4. double replacement
Define combination reaction (synthesis).
Formation of a compound from the union of its elements.
Define decomposition reaction (analysis).
Breakdown of a compound to release its components
as individual elements or other compounds.
Define single replacement (simgle displacement) reaction.
One substance is displacing another substance.
Define double replacement (double displacement) reaction.
The actual exchange of "partners" to form new compounds.
Define Heat of Combustion (combination reaction).
The heat evolved when one mol of a substance is completely oxidized.

^H
The opposite of neutralization reactions is known as:
hydrolysis reactions.
The salt and water react to form an acid and a base (solution is neutral).
This is known as:
hydrolysis.
The measure of the randomness that exists in a system is known as:
entropy.
Heat content is known as:
enthalpy.
^H (heat content) for endothermic reaction =
positive kcals (kilocalories).
^H (heat content) for exothermic reaction =
negative kcals (kilocalories).
Name the law that states: the heat of reaction is the algebraic sum of two or more other reactions.
Law of Heat Summations
Name the law that states:
the total energy of the universe is constant and cannot be created or destroyed.
First Law of Thermodynamics
What is the Standard State Condition for reporting heat data?
25 degrees Celcius
and
one ATM pressure
All of the following involve a chemical change EXCEPT:

A. the formation of HCl from H2 and Cl2.
B. the color change when NO is exposed to air.
C. the formation of steam from brning H2 and O2.
D. the solidification of Crisco at low temperatures.
E. the odor of NH3 when NH4Cl is rubbed together with Ca(OH)2 powder.
D. the solidification of Crisco at low temperatures.
The solidification of Crisco is merely a physical change
just like the formation of ice from liquid water at lower temperatures.
All the others involve actual recombinations of the atoms
and, thus, are chemical changes.
When most fuels burn, the products include carbon dioxide and:

A. hydrocarbons
B. hydrogen
C. water
D. hydroxide
E. hydrogen peroxide
C. water
Water is formed because most common fuels contain hydrogen in their structure.
In the metric system, the prefix "kilo" means:

A. 10 to the zero power
B. 10 to the negative one power
C. 10 to the negative two power
D. ten to the second power
E. ten to the third power
E. 10 to the third power
The other choices, in order, would be: 1, 1/10 or deci, 1/100 or centi, and 100.
How many atoms are in 1 mol of water?

A. 3
B. 54
C. 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power
D. 2(6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power)
E. 3(6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power)
E. 3(6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power)
One mole of any substance contains (6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power) molecules.
Since each water molecule is TRIATOMIC,
there would be 3(6.02 x 10 to the 23rd power) atoms present.
Which of the following atoms normally forms monoatomic molecules?

A. Cl
B. H
C. O
D. N
E. He
E. He
The noble gases are ALL monoatomic
because of their complete outer energy level.
A rule to help you remember diatomic gases is:
Gases ending in "-gen" or "-ine" usually form DIATOMIC molecules.
Which method is often employed in the separation of the hydrocarbons found in petroleum?

A. alkylation
B. hydrogenation
C. catalytic cracking
D. fractional distillation
E. polymerization
D. fractional distillation
Fractional distillation separates the hydrocarbons by taking advantage of the difference in boiling points.
All other processes mentioned are used to modify the molecular structure of the hydrocarbons.
The complete loss of an electron of one atom to another atom with the consequent formation of electrostatic charges is said to be:

A. a covalent bond
B. a polar covalent bond
C. an ionic bond
D. a coordinate covalent bond
E. a pi bond between p orbitals
C. an ionic bond
The complete loss and gain of electrons is an ionic bond.
All other bonds indicated are "sharing of electrons" type bonds
or some form of covalent bonding.
In the electrolysis of water, the cathode reaction is:

A. 2H2O(l) + 2e- >>> H2(g) + 2OH- + O2(g)
B. 2H2O(l) >>> ½ O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e-
C. 2OH- + 2e- >>> O2(g) H2(g)
D. 2H+ + 2e- >>> H2(g)
E. 2H2O(l) + 4e- >>> O2(g) + 2H2(g)
D. 2H+ + 2e- >>> H2(g)
The cathode reaction releases ONLY H2 gas.
The half-reaction is a given in reaction D.
The polarity of water is useful in explaining which of the following?

I. the solution process
II. the ionization process
III. the high conductivity of distilled water

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III
C. I and II only
Only I and II are true.
Distilled water does NOT significantly conduct an electric current.
The polarity of the water molecule is helpful in ionization
and in causing substances to go into solution.
When sulfur dioxide is bubbled through water,
the sulution will contain:

A. sulfurous acid
B. sulfuric acid
C. hyposulfuric acid
D. persulfuric acid
E. anhydrous sulfuric acid
A. sulfurous acid
SO2 is the acid anhydride of H2SO3 (sulfurous acid).
H2O + SO2 >>> H2SO3.
Which fraction would be used to correct a given volume of gas at 30 degrees Celsius
to its new volume when it is heated to 60 degrees Celsius
and the pressure is kept constant?

A. 30/60
B. 60/30
C. 273/333
D. 303/333
E. 333/303
E. 333/303
Since the temperature (in kelvins) increases from 303 to 333 K, the volume of the gas should increase with the pressure held constant.
The correct fraction is 333/303.
What would be the predicted freezing point of a solution that has 684 g of sugar (1 mol = 342 g) dissolved in 1500 g of water?

A. 1.86 degrees C
B. -0.93 degrees C
C. -1.39 degrees C
D. -2.48 degrees C
E. -2.79 degrees C
D. -2.48 degrees C
One mole of dissoved substance (which does not ionize)
causes a 1.86 drop (Celsius) in the freezing point of a 1 M solution.
Since 1500 g of water was used, the solution has 684/342 or 2 mol in 1500 g of water.
Then:
2mol/1500 = x moles/1000 g
x=2000/1500 = 1.33 mol/1000 g
So the freezing point is depressed 1.33 x -1.86 degrees = -2.48 degrees Celsius
What is the approximate pH of a 0.003 M solution of H2SO4?

A. 1
B. 2
C. 5
D. 9
E. 13
B. 2
The pH is -log[H+].
A 0.003 M solution of H2SO4 ionizes in a dilute solution to release two H+ ions per molecule of H2SO4.
Therefore, the molar concentration of H+ ion is 2 x 0.003 mol/L or 0.006 mol/L.
Substituting this in the formula gives: pH = -log[0.006] = -log [6 x 10 to the negative 3 power].
The log of a number is the exponent to which the base 10 is raised to express that number in exponential form:
1 = 10 to the zero power and so long 1 = 0
and 10 = 10 to the first power and so log 10=1.
The log of 6 must be 10 to a decimal exponent less than 1 and probably close to 0.7.
How many grams of NaOH are needed to make 100 g of a 5% solution?

A. 2
B. 5
C. 20
D. 40
E. 95
B. 5
If the solution is to be 5% sodium hydroxide,
then 5% of 100 g is 5g.
Percent is always by weight unless otherwise specified.
For the Haber process, N1 + 3H2 >>> 2NH3 + heat (at equilibrium),
which statement concerning the reaction rate is true?

A. The reaction to the right will decrease when more N2 is added.
B. The reaction to the right will decrease when the pressure is increased.
C. The reaction to the right will decrease when the pressure is increased.
D. The reaction to the right will decrease when more H2 is added.
E. The reaction to the right will decrease when NH3 is removed.
C. The reaction to the right will decrease when the pressure is increased.
Since this equation is exothermic, higher temperatures will decrease the reaction to the right and increase the reaction to the left.
In general, when metal oxides react with water,
they form solutions that are:
basic.
Metal oxides are generally basic anhydrides.
Isotopes of an element are related because which of the followin is (are) the same in these isotopes?

I. atomic mass
II. atomic number
III. arrangement of orbital elemets

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and II only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III
D. II and III only
The atomic number and the arrangement of orbital electrons are identical.
Isotopes differ only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus,
and this affects only the atomic mass.
Which of the following particles has the least mass?

A. alpha particle
B. beta particle
C. proton
D. neutron
E. gamma ray
B. beta particle
The beta particle is a high-speed electron and
has the smallest mass of the first four choices.
Gamma rays are electromagnetic waves.
Which emission from a radioactive source is an electromagenetic wave
and is not affected by an electric field?

A. alpha particle
B. beta particle
C. proton
D. neutron
E. gamma ray
E. gamma ray
A gamma ray is not affected by an electric field
because it is an electromagnetic wave.
Which of the following will cause the volume of a gas to increase?

I. Decrease the pressure with the temperature held constant.
II. Increase the pressure with a temperature decrease.
III. Increase the temperature with a pressure increase.

A. I only
B. II only
C. I and III only
D. II and III only
E. I, II, and III
A. I only
Accordingto the gas laws, only I will cause an increase in the volume of a confined gas.