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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is energy?
is the potietnal or capacity to move matter
NAME
is the potential or capacity to move matter
energy
What is kinetic energy?
the energy of motion
NAME
is the energy of motion
kinetic energy
NAME
the energy assocaition w, an objec by virtue of its motion
kinetic energy
How do Physcist Joule contrubite to chemistry? (2)
he studied the energy concept and came up w the SI unit of energy, Joule or kg*m^2/s^2 (it is a very small unit)
NAME
is the SI unit of energy
Joule
What does Calorie mean?
is the amount of energy required to raise the temp one gram of water by one degree C
NAME
is the amount of enrgy required to raise the temp by one gram of water by one degree C
Calorie
1 Cal = (1) j
4.184
NAME
is the older version used to measure energy
joule
NAME
is the new version used to measure energy
Caloire
Describe the unit joule? (3)
(1)is a si unit of energy (2) older version based on biolgical concerns (3)is a very small unit
NAME
is non-si unit of energy commonly used by chemists
Calorie
Is a Calorie a si-unit of energy?
no
What is potential enegery?
the energy of postion
NAME
is the energy of postion
potential energy
How do you kind kinetic energy?
Ek=1/2mv^2
How do you find potential energy?
Pe=mgh
m=mass
g=9.8
h=hieght of water
NAME
is the energy of an object has by virture of its postion in a field of force
Potential energy
Are food labels in America really in calories?
no kilo calories
What is internal energy?
is the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energies of particles making up a substance
NAME
is the sum of the kinetic energy and potential energies of particles making up a substance
internal energy
How do you kind internal energy?
Etot=Ek+Ep+U

Etot=total energy
Ek=kinetic energy
Ep=potential energy
U=internal energy
How do you find the total energy?
Etot=Ek+Ep+U

Etot=total energy
Ek=kinetic energy
Ep=potential energy
U=internal energy
What is the law of conservation of energy?
says energy may be converted from one form to another, but the total quanity of energy remains constant
NAME
says energy may be converted from on form to another, but the total quanity of the energy remains constant
the law of conservation of energy
What is the differ between a sysyem and surrounding? (4)
(1)system is the substance or mixture of substances under study in which changes ocur(2)the surroundings are everything in the vicinity of the thermodynamic system
(3) in simple terms, system=is what it is reacting w (4)surroundings=is whats around it
What is heat?
the energy that flows into or out of the system bc of a different in temp btwn the thermodyanmic system and the surroundings
NAME
is the energy that flows into or out of the system bc of a different temp btwn the thermodynamicc system and its surroundings
heat
What is a surroundings?
are everything in the vicinity of the system
NAME
is everything in the vincinity of the system
surroundings
What is thes system?
is the substance or mixture of the substance under study in which a change ocurs
NAME
is the substance or mixture of the mixture of the substance under study in which a change ocurs
system
Give a VERY SIMPLE explanation for the difference btwn a system and the surroundings
(1)system=is what it is reacting w (2)surroundings=is whats around it
What is the differ btwn a endothermic and endothermic reaction? (just give def for know)
Endothermic is a chemical reaction or physical change in which heat is absorbed and q is positive (2)Exothermic is a chemical reaction or physical reaction in which heat is evolved and q is negative
What is endothermic reaction? (3)
(1)is a chemical reaction or physical change in which heat is absorbed and q is postive (2)During the experiment, the reaction vessel cools and heat is absorbed (3)the result is that energy is added to the system
What is a exothermic reaction? (3)
(1)is a chemical reaction or physcial reaction in which heat is evolved and q is negative (2)during the experiment, the reaction vessel warms and the heat is evolved (3) The result on the system, is that energy is subtracted
T or F
distance is a state function
False
What is Enthalpy?(3)
(1)is a speacil q, when heat is lossed at a constant (2)is a extensive property of substance that can be used to obtain the heat absorbed or evolved in a chemical reaction (3)is a state function
What is a state function?
is a property of a sysytem that depends on only its present state which is determined by variables such as temp, and pressure and is independent of any previous history of the system
NAME
is a property of a system tha depends on only its present state which is determined by variables such as temp, and pressure and is independent of any previous history of a system
state function
How do you find the ∆ H?
∆H= H(products)- H(reactants)
How do you find H?
H=U + Pv
U=internal energy
P=pressure
V=volumne
What is thermochemical equation?
is balanced equation w ∆ H to the right
NAME
is balanced equation w a ∆ H to the right
thermochemical equation
When a chemical equation is revesred, the value of ∆H is (1)
is reveresed in sign
What is heat capacity?
is the quanity of heat needed to raise the temp of the sample of substance one degree C
How do you find the heat capacity?
q=C∆t
q=heat capacity
What is specifc heat or specific heat capacity?
the quanity of heat required to raise the temp of one gram of a substance
How do you find the specifc heat capacity?
q=sm∆t
q=heat
s=specific heat
m=mass
What is the specifc heat of water?
4.18 J
Give a ex of calorimeter?
a simple coffe cup
What is calorimeter?
is a device used to measure the heat asborbed or evolved during a physical or chemical change
Draw the picture of the calorimeter?
see pg 240
How did Hess contrubite to chemistry?
discovered the result from an experiment. Hess's law of summation- states that for a chemical equation that can be written as the sum of two or more steps, the enthalpy change for the overall equation equals the sum of the enthalpy changes for the indivdual steps
What is the standard state?
the standard thermodynamic conidition chosen for substances when listing or comparing thermodyanmic data (usally 1 atm pressure and 25 C)
What is the standard enthalpy formation?
is the enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of the the substance in its standard state from its elements in their reference form and their standard state
standard enthalpy formation is also called (1)
standard heat of formation
What is frequency?
is the number of wavelengths of that wave that pass a fixed point in one unit of time
the greater the wavelength, the (1)the frequency
lower
The (1), the lower the frequency
wavelength
What is the speed of light?
3 * 10^ 8
How do you find the speed of light?
c=ύλ
ύ=frequency
λ=wavelength
c=3 *10^8
Draw chart of electromagenitc spectrum?
p268
Describe the relationship btwn frequency, energy, and wavelength
frequency and energy are proportional, when one increases so does the other.(2) frequency and energy are inversely related to the wavelength, when the wavelength decreases the frequency and the energy increase
How did planck contrubite to chemistry? (2)
found a theortical formula that describes the intenisty of light at various frequencies emitted by a hot solid at different temp (2) E=nhύ
n=1,2,3
h=6.63*10^-34
ύ=frequency
How did Eisnstein contrubite to chem?(4)
(1)studyed how light behaved (2)believed that it had a dual nature, w wavelike charactersitcs and acted as particle (3)came up w the photoelectric effect which states that the ejection of electrons from the surface of metal or from another material when light shines on it (4) said ligth consists of photons-particles of electromagantic energy, with energy that is proportional to the observed frequency of the light
How do you find energy?
E=Hύ
ύ=frequency
H=6.63*10^-34
Light has a dual nature? explain.
(1)act as a wave (2)particle
When electrons hit metal, what happens?
electrons are ejected if there is sufficient energy
wavelength has (1)
certain thereshold values
Draw a memomry matrix for comparing the different orbitals (7)
see notes or study guide
How did Bohr contruibite to chemistry?
(1)applied a new theory to H
(2)has two postualtes 1-a electron can only have specfic energy values in an atom 2-an electron an atom can change energy only by going from one energy level to the next
What is a transition?
when a electron changes energy by moving from energy level to the next
What are Bohr's postulates?
(1)an electron can have only specfic energy values in an atom (2)An electron in atom can change energy by only going from one energy level to the next
What is the differ btwn a continous and line spectrem?
(1)continous-contains all wavelenghs (2)line-shows only certain colors or specfic wavelengths
How did JJ Balmer contrubite to chemistry?
(1)showed that wavelengths in a visble spectrem of hydrogen could be reproduced with the formula
1/λ=1.097*10^7(1/n^2-1/n^2)
How do you find the energy for a H atom?
E=-Rh/n^2
Rh=2.179*10^-8
How did De Broglie contrubite to chemistry?
(1)said that light exhibited particle aspects and shows wave characteristics under certain circumstances (2) λ=h/mv
How do you find the energy emited by a photon of H?
∆E (Ef-Ei)
How do you find the λ when givig the speed of a object?
λ =h/mv
h=6.63*10^-34
v=speed
m=mass
Each orbital always has (1)
2e
How did Pauli contruibute to chemistry?
(1) came up with the Pauli Exclusion principle which says that two electrons cant have the same four quantum numbers or an orbital can hold at most 2e and then only if e have opposite spins
What is the building up princinple?
a scheme used to reproduce the e configuration of the ground state of atoms succesfuly filling subshells w electrons in a specfic order
Why are there some exceptions to the buidling up principle?
bc there is close energy from bwtn 4s and 4d, some e can from 4s to 3 or 3d to 4s in order to get a complete orbital
Give two examples of execptions to the buidling up principle?
(1)chromium (2)Copper
Draw the building up order
see page 307 of text
Draw a chart showing energy levels all the way up to n=4.
see notes
How did Hund contrubite to chemitrty?
came up with Hunds rule which states that the lowest energy arrangement of e in a subshell is obtained by putting e into separate orbitals of the subshell w the same spin before pairing the e
left to right on table is (1)
higher energy
What determines the reacivity of the element?
the # of e in the unfilled shell
Metals tend to want to (1) e
lose
Non-metals tend to want to (1) e
gain
How do elements fill there shells?
from lower to higher
Explain why elments get smaller as they go from left to right on the periodic table (horzontally)
they get smaller bc for each element starting on the left going to the right, u are filling more e and adding orbitals and protons. Resulting, in the orbitals further from the nucelcus that have a stronger pull towards to the nuclues ( the addition of e and p, causes their attraction to become stronger)
Explain why elments get bigger as the go from the top of the periodic table down to the bottom (vertically)
they are bigger bc the element go down by period number more eletrons are added to each shell. resulting in more orbitals being added to the element and increased size bc of the each orbital is further away from the nucleus
What happens when a e is added to a element? (2)
(1)another p added (2) the attratction btwn e and p becomes stronger
With in each period (horizonal), the (1)
atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing atomic number
With in each (1), the atomic radius tends to decrease with increasing attomic number
period (horizontal)
With in each group (vertical), (1)
the atomic radius tneds to increase w period number
with each (1), the atomic radius tends to increase w period number
group (vertical)
What are the highest values for n? and the lowest values?
(1)highest=noble gases (2)lowest=alkali metals (group IA)
What is the effective nuclear charge?
is the postive charge that an e experiences from the nucleus, equal to the nuclear charge but reduced by any shielding from any intervening electron distrbution
What is the first ionization energy?
is the minuminum energy needed to remove the highest(the outermost) e from the neutral atom in the gaseous state
what is e affinity?
is the energy change for the process of adding an e to a neutral atom in the gaseous state to a form a negative ion or in short (2)who wants to gain e
What is the prinicpal quatnum number?
n=which shell
What is the angualar mometum Quantum number?
l=is which subshell (s=0,p=1,d=2)
What is the magentic quantum number?
ml=which box for p and d based on l
What is the spin quatnum number?
ms=where the last e is put
+1/2=1st e
-1/2=2nd e
ms=
(1)where the last e is put (-1/2 or +1/2) (2)spin quatnum numbers
What is ml?
magentic quatum number (2)which bo for p and d based on l
What is n?
(1)is which shell (2)principl quatnum numbers
What is l?
(1)is which subshell (2) angualar mometum quatunm numbers
what did Bohr find wrong with Rutherford's nuclear model?
Based on rutherford's model, one should be able to show that electrically charged particles that revovle around the nucleus would lose contiously lose energy as electromagentic radiation. (2) as an electron lost energy it would spin into the nucleus (3)therefore,the stability of atoms could not be explained
How did Thomas Young contribute to chemistry?
showed that light could be defracted
How did Issac Newton contrubte to chemistty?
beleived that light consisted of a beam of particles
How did Ernst Ruka contrubite to chemistry?
invented the e microscope based on light's wave properties
NAME*
its function is its maintians fiber seperatation established at the chiasma, but balances and combines the retinal input for delivery of the visual cortex
lateral geniculate body
NAME*
its function is its a visual reflex centers control extrinistic muscles of the eye
superior colliculi
NAME*
its function is to mediate puppillary light reflexes
pretectal nuclei
NAME*
its function is as "the timmer" to set our daily biorhythms
suparchiasmatic nucelus of the hypthalamus