Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pursuit of scientific knowledge without the goal of a practical application.
Basic Science
Science with a well-defined, short-term goal of solving a specific problem.
Applied Science
Application of scientific knowledge in the context of industrial production, our economic system, and our societal goals.
The study of matter and the changes it can undergo.
Large enough to be seen, felt and handled.
Visible only with the aid of a microscope.
In the range of the nanometer; atoms and molecules are in this range.
Pure substances composed of atoms of different elements combined in definite, fixed ratios.
Chemical Compounds
The smallest chemical unit of a compound that retains the composition and properties of the compound and can exist independently.
Uniform in composition.
Homogeneous mixtures
Not Uniform in composition.
Heterogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures, which may be in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state.
A measure of the quantity of matter in an object.
Properties that can be observed without changing the identity of a substance.
Physical properties
Mass per unit volume.
Properties that result in chemical reactions and changes in the identity of one or more reactants.
Chemical Properties
Process in which one or more pure substances are converted to one or more different pure substances.
Chemical Reaction
Substances that undergo chemical change in a chemical reaction.
Substances formed as the result of a chemical reaction.
The capacity for doing work or causing change.
Energy in storage by virtue of position or arrangement.
Potential energy
Kinetic energy
The energy of objects in motion
Molecules composed of two atoms.
Diatomic Molecules
Written combination of element symbols that represents the atoms combined in a chemical compound.
Chemical formula
In chemical formulas, numbers written below the line to show numbers or ratios of atoms in a compound.
Chemical formulas that show the connections between atoms in molecules as straight lines.
Structural formulas
Chemical formulas that represent molecules with atom symbols and subscripts.
Molecular formulas
Compounds of carbon with hydrogen, and derivatives of these compounds
Organic compounds
Compounds of all elements other than the organic compounds of carbon
Inorganic compounds
Representations of chemical reactions by the formulas of reactants and products
Chemical equations
Chemical equations in which the total number of atoms of each kind is the same in reactants and products.
Balanced chemical equations
Describes information or experiments that are numerical.
Describes information or experiments that are not numerical.
Matter is neither lost nor gained during a chemical reaction.
Law of conservation of matter
In a compound, the constituent elements are always present in a definite proportion by weight.
Law of definite proportions
Positively charged subatomic particles found in the nucleus
Electrically neutral subatomic particles found in the nucleus
Small central core of the atom; contains the protons and neutrons.
Negatively charged subatomic particles found in the space around the nucleus
Spontaneous decomposition of unstable atomic nuclei; produces alpha, beta, and gamma radiation
Positively charged particles identical to helium
Alpha particles
Electrons ejected at high speeds from certain radioactive isotopes
Beta particles
High-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive isotopes
Gamma Rays
The number of protons in the nuclei of the atoms of an element.
Atomic Number
Number of neutrons plus number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number
Atoms of the same element having different mass numbers
The unit for relative atomic masses of the elements
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
The number that represents the average atomic mass of the element's isotopes weighted by percentage abundance.
Atomic Weight
A spectrum that contains radiation distributed over all wavelengths
Continuous spectrum
The smallest increment of energy
The condition of ana tom in which all electrons are in their normal, lowest energy levels
Ground state
An unstable, higher energy state of an atom
Excited state
A principal energy level defined by a given value of n
A region of three-dimensional space around an atom within which there is a significant probability that a given electron will be found.
Different energy levels within a given shell
Arrangement of elements in atomic number order in rows so that elements with similar properties fall together in vertical columns.
Periodic table
Vertical columns of elements with similar properties in the periodic table
Elements in the A groups of the periodic table
Representative or main-group elements
Elements in periodic table rows 4-7 in which d or f orbitals are being filled
transition elements
Elements 58-71 and 90-103 which lie between Groups 2A and 3A of the main group elements and are usually placed at the bottom of the periodic table
Inner transition elements
Horizontal rows in the periodic table
Elements that conduct electric current; most are malleable and ductile
Elements that do not conduct electrical current
Poor conductors of heat and electricity
Elements with properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals
Metalloid elements with electrical conductivity intermediate between that of metals and nonmetals
Group 8A elements in the periodic table
Noble Gases
Atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative sharge
Elements in Group 1A
Alkali Metals
An ion with an overall positive charge
Elements in Group 2A in the periodic table
Alkaline earth metals
Elements in Group 7A in the periodic table
An ion with an overall negative charge