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91 Cards in this Set

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What are solutions?
They are homogeneous mixtures of substances that combine to form a single phase, generally the liquid phase
What does a solution consist of?
It consists of a solute dispersed in a solvent
What is the solvent?
It is the component of the solution whose phase remains the same after mixing
What if they are in equal amounts?
Then the solvent is the component present in greater quantity
What is the interaction between solute and solvent molecules known as?
It is called salvation or dissolution
What is it called when water is the solvent?
It is called hydration
What is the resulting solution known s?
It is known as an aqueous solution
When is salvation possible?
It is possible when the attractive forces between solute and solvent are stronger than those between the solute particles
What is the general rule for dissolving?
Like dissolves like
What is the solubility of a substance?
It is the maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a particular solvent at a particular temperature
What is it called when this maximum amount of solute has been added?
The solution is in equilibrium and is said to be saturated
What is it called in which the proportion of solute to solvent is small?
It is said to be dilute
What is the proportion of solute to solvent is large?
It is called concentrated
What are aqueous solutions?
They are solutions that the solvent is water
Are salts of alkali metals water soluble?
Yes
Are the salts of the ammonium ion (NH4+) water soluble?
Yes
Are chlorides, bromides, and iodides water soluble?
Yes
Are the salts of the sulfate ion (SO4-2water soluble?
Yes
Are metal oxides soluble?
No
Are hydroxides soluble?
No
Are carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, and sulfites soluble?
No
For elements that can form more than one positive ion, what is the charge indicated by?
It is indicated by a roman numeral in parenthesis followed by the name of the element
When are the endings –ous and –ic added?
They are added to represent ions with lesser or greater charge respectively
How are monoatomic anions named?
They are named by dropping the ending of the name and adding –ide
How are polyatomic anions contain oxygen named?
They are oxyanions, and if an element has two or more oxyanions, the name of the one with less oxygen ends in –ite and the one with more oxygen ends in –ate
When there are four oxyanions, what happens?
Prefixes are used with the single oxygen getting hypo/-ite, the one with two oxygens gettings –ite, the one with three getting ate, and the one with four getting per/-ate
What do metals generally form?
They generally form positive ions
What do nonmetals form?
They generally form negative ions
What are solutes whose solutions are conductive called?
They are called electrolytes
When is a solute considered a strong electrolyte?
It is considered one if its dissociates completely into its constituent ions
What is a weak electrolyte?
It ionizes or hydrolyzes incompletely in aqueous solution and only some of the solute is present in ionic form
What is percent composition by mass?
It is the mass of the solute divided by the mass of the solution multiplied by 100
What is the mole fraction (X)?
It is equal to the number of moles of the compound divided by the total number of moles of all species within the system
What does the sum of the mole fractions in a system equal?
It always equals 1
What is molarity (M)
It is the number of moles of solute per liter of solution
What is molality (m)?
It is the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
What is normality?
It is equal to the number of gram equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution
When is a solution diluted?
It is diluted when solvent is added to a solution of high concentration to produce a solution of lower concentration
What is the equation to determine the concentration of a solution after dilution?
MiVi = MfVf. M is molarity. V is volume
What is the ion product, I.P.?
I.P. = [An+]m[Bm-]n
What is the solubility product constant, Ksp?
It is equal to the I.P.
What does solubility of a substance varies depending on?
The temperature of the solution, the solvent, and, in the case of a gas-phase solute, the pressure
What else is it affected by?
It is affected addition of other substances to the solution
What is the arrhenius definition of acids?
An acid is a species that produces H+ (a proton) in an aqueous solution
What is the arrhenius definition of bases?
A base as a species that produces OH- (a hydroxide ion) in an aqueous solution
What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid?
It is a species that donates protons
What is a Bronsted-Lowry base?
It is a species that accepts protons
What Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases always occur in?
They always occur in conjugate acid-base pairs
What is a Lewis acid?
It is an electron-pair acceptor
What is a Lewis-base?
It is an electron-pair donor
What is the prefix for acids formed from anions whose names end in –ide?
It is hydro
What is the suffic for acids formed from anions whose names end in –ide?
-ic
What are acids called that formed from oxyanions?
They are called oxyacids
What will the acid end with if the anion ends in –ite?
The acid will end with –ous acid
What if the anion ends in –ate?
The acid will end with –ic acid
What is pH equal to?
pH = -log[H+] = log(1/[H+])
What is pOH equal to?
pOH = -log[OH-] = log(1/[OH-])
What is Kw?
The water dissociation constant
What is it equal to?
Kw = [H+][OH-] = 10-14
What does rewriting this in logarithmic form give?
It gives pH + pOH = 14
What does [H+] equal in pure H2O?
It equals [OH-]
What does a pH below 7 indicate?
It indicates a relative excess of H+ ions, and is therefore acidic
What does a pH above 7 indicate?
It indicates a relative excess of OH- ions, and is therefore a basic solution
What does Log xn equal?
Log xn = nLogx
-Log 10-x equals what?
It equals x
If [H+] is equal to .001, or 10-3, then pH equals what?
It equals 3
If Kb = 1.0x10-7, then pKb equals what?
It equals 7
What are strong acids and bases?
They are those that completely dissociate into their component ions in aqueous solution
What are weak acids and bases?
They are those that only partially dissociate in aqueous solution
What is the acid dissociation constant, Ka?
It is the measure of the degree to which an acid dissociates. Ka = [H3O+][A-] / [HA]
What is the base dissociation constant, Kb?
It is the measure of the degree to which a base dissociates. Kb = [B+][OH-] / [BOH]
What is a conjugate acid?
It is defined as the acid formed when a base gains a proton
What is a conjugate base?
It is formed when an acid loses a proton
In a conjugate acid/base pair formed from a weak acid, is the conjugate base generally stronger than the conjugate acid?
Yes
What is hydrolysis?
It is when the salt ions react with water to give back the acid or base
What are the four combinations of strong and weak acids and bases?
Strong acid + strong base. Strong acid + weak base. Weak acid + strong base. Weak acid + weak base
What are the products of a reaction between equal concentrations of a strong acid and strong base?
They are a salt and water
Because the acid and base neutralize each other, what is the resulting solution?
It is neutral
What about the ions?
The ions formed in the reaction do not react with water
What is the product of a reaction between a strong acid and a weak base?
It is also a salt but usually no water is formed since weak bases are usually not hydroxides
What happens when a weak acid reacts with a strong base?
The solution is based, due to the hydrolysis of the salt to reform the acid
What is the relative acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution determined by?
It is determined by the concentrations of acid and base equivalents
What is an acid equivalent?
It is equal to one mole of H+
What is a base equivalent equal to?
It is equal to one mole of OH- ions
What is amphoteric or amphiprotic?
It is a species that can act either as an acid or base, depending on its chemical environment
What is a titration?
It is a procedure used to determine the molarity of an acid or base
What is this accomplished by?
You react a known volume of a solution of unknown concentration with a known volume of a solution of known concentration
What have you reached when the number of acid equivalents equals the number of base
equivalents added?
A strong acid/strong base titration will always have an equivalent point of what?
pH 7
What is a buffer solution?
It consists of a mixture of a weak acid and its salt, or a mixture of a weak base and its salt
What does the Henderson-Hasselbach equation do?
It is used to estimate the pH of a solution in the buffer region where the concentrations of the species and its conjugate are present in approximately equal concentrations