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43 Cards in this Set

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Science
the search for facts in the world through logical explanations given from observastions that deal with cause annd effect relationships.
Pure Science
the search for a better understanding of our physical and naturual world for its own sake.
Pure Science
(side notes)
1. discovery and explations end themselves.
2. Pure scientists don't concer themselves with finding uses for their discoveries.
Applied Science
the pratical application of scientific discoveries.
Applied Science
(side notes)
1. Applied scientists put discoverise to their work
2. Technology is driven by applied science.
5 Major Divisions of Chemistry
1. Organic Chemistry
2. Biochemistry
3. Analytical Chemistry
4. Physical Chemistry
5. Inorganic Chemistry
5 Major Divisions of Chemistry
(mnemonic divice)
Old Boys And Periolous Internet
Whos was Roger Bacon, and what did he do?
-15th century english Franciscan monk
-introduced the belief that understanding the natural world could be gained through observation and experimentation
Who is the father of Science?
Lavoisier
- because he made percise measurements of mass change in chemicals reaction.
Chemistry
(def.)
the study and investigation of the structure and properties of matter. Relationships between propeortions and structure can be organized into a limited number of basic principles and facts.
Scientists observe and analyze change in the following:
1. matter
2. inertia
3. energy
Matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Inertia
the resistance of matter to change in direction of fate of motion. Matter has 3 physical states of matter, solid, liquid, and gas.
Energy
the capacity for doing work.
nearly all chemical and physical changes in nature involve the absobstion or emission of energy.
Energy Can exist is serveral forms:
1. chemical
2. nuclear
3. electrical
4. radiant (light)
5. mechanical
6. thermal
What are to two gerneral forms of Energy?
1. potential
2. kinetic
Potential Energy
stored energy
Kinetic Energy
the energy in motion
Potential & Kinetic Energy
Example
Gas is chemical potential energy, when gas in burned in the cars engine the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, the action.
Scientific Theory
1. stating a problem
2. collecting observations
3. searching for scientific laws.
4. forming hypothesis
5. forming theories
6. modifing theories
Significant Figures:
how & why
> measuring purposes only
> Tells how far to round numbers
> tells the accuracy of the instrument being used
> take the obvious measurements until you are no longer sure and then estimate.
Sig Fig Rules
(#1-3)
1. Sig Figs tell su the accuracy of the measurment
2. The last sig fig is the first estimated diget.
-anytime there is a factor infront
-5 people, can't have half of a person, pure
-pure #'s have infinte number of sig figs
-pure #'s and #'s that cant be counted
3. Pure numbers have infinte sig fi, no limits
Sig Fig Rules
(#4-7)
4. all non-zero digits are significant
5. any zero between non-zero digits are significant
6. all place holder zeros are not significant
- ex: 1,000
- ex: 0.0005
7. zeros with lines above or below , or a decmial after are significant
Sig Fig Rules
(#8)
8. any zero after the decimal point and to the right of a sig fig is significant.
Sig Fig Rules
(#9&10)
9. round addtion or subtraction answers to the least common place value
10. for multiplication of division first solve the problem. Round your answer to the least number of sig figs from the problem.
Chapter 1 & Sig Figs
shoma shoma shoma
Chapter 2
shoma shoma shoma
Chapter 2 review
basic mathimatical techniques and measuring procedure which are important in problem solving will be introduced.
International System
[aka SI] is used to facilitate communitcation amoung scientists all over the world.
Quantitative measurment
describes a property of mass without measurements. When the property is decribed or measured by stadard untis it is characterized qualitatively.
SI Base Units
1. Length = meters (m)
2. Time = seconds (s)
3. Mass = Kilograms (Kg)
4. Thermodynamic Temperature = Kelvin (K)
5. Amount of a substamce = mole (mol)
Weight
(def)
the measurement of the forces of gravity bewtween two objects.
Wieght depends on :
the distance of the object from the center of the earth. (earth b/c its size relative to everything else. any two objects will exert a force upon each other.) The weight of an object can vary from place to place, depending on the distance from the center of the earth.
Mass
a measurement of the quantity of matter an object contains.
Mass is measured by:
comparing the standard of 1 kilogram. A kilogram is defined as the mass of 1L of water at 40 degrees C, (water freezes at 0 degrees C)
Derived Units
cm^3, dm^3
density = mass/ volume
denstiy = grams/ cm^3
density = amount of mass / unit of volume
[maore dense = tighter molecules]
Temperature
(def)
the average kinteic energy of a group of particles
Temperature measured in:
1. kelvin = degreesC + 273
2. Celsius = 100 equal intervals, 0 degrees freezing point of water and 100 degrees boiling point.
Heat is:
a means of energy transfer and is measured in joules. Heat is the total kinetic energy.
Accuracy
refers to how close a measurement is for the true value for the quantity.
Precision
refers to how close a set of measurements for a quantity is to one another.
Percent Error
used to determine the accuracy of experimental methods of calculations. Compairison of the difference between expirmental results and theoretical value expressedas a percentaged
Percent error
(problem)
(expirmental value - theoretical value) / theoretical value * 100