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64 Cards in this Set

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What is a solution?
Mixture of 2 or more substances where each substance retains its own chemical identity.
What is a solvent?
The Main component of the solution. eg Water is the main component in a salt/water solution.
What is a solute?
The smaller component in a solution. eg Salt in a salt/water solution.
How do water molecules arrange themselves in the formation of a solution?
The hydrogen atoms of water (H2O)are positively charged and are attracted to the negative charged ions.
What is a buffer
Is an aqueous solution (aq) containing substances that prevent major changes in the solution's pH when either acids or bases are added.
We use a buffer to...
maintain an optimum pH
Buffers contain how many active chemical species?
2
A substance to react with and remove the added base.

A substance to react with and remove the added acid.
A pH of 7 is?
Neutral
eg. water
A pH of 1
Battery Acid
Increased Acidity
Stomach Acid has a pH of?
pH 2
Acidity
Saltwater has a pH of?
pH 9
Increased Alkalinity
A base dissolved in water is called an?
Alkaline solution.
Neutralisation is the process
of an acid & base mix and produce salt and water
Acid + Base = salt(aq) & water
Bronsted -Lowry acid
is a substance that can donate a proton
A proton is an
H+cation
Remove reactants
Reaction shifts to left
Remove Product
Reaction shifts to right
Increase in temperature
reaction shifts to the left
Decrease in temperature
reaction shifts to the right
More Hydrogen atoms the ph is?
More acidic
Lower number
Less Hydrogen atoms the ph is?
More akaline
Higher number
pH values are from 0 to?
14
Acidic pH is lower than?
7
Alkaline is higher than
7
Exothermic reaction produces
Heat (E)
E
Energy
ie heat
What is a strong electrolyte?
A substance that completely ionises/dissociates into ions in an aqueous solution
What is a weak electrolyte?
A substance tht does not completly ionise/dissociate in an aqueous solution.
How many substances are in a solution that retains its own chemical identity?
Homogeneous mixture of two more substances
Polar solutes dissolve in
Polar solvents
What kind of solvent is water?
Water is a polar solvent
Salts readily dissolve in water due to their
Ionic nature
They are positively or negatively charges
Water is polar/oil is?
Non polar
Water molecules are polar molecules & comprised of how many hydrogen atoms?
Water molecules have two hydrogen atoms and a single oxygen atom
Arrhenius acid produces?
Hydrogen cations (H+)
Acid is a proton donator.
Base is a ?
Proton acceptor
An acid & base produce salt and water when mixed together. This process is called?
Neutralisation
The concentration of hydronium cations determines?
The pH of a solution
If a solution has more hydronium cations than hydroxylan ions, the solution is?
Acidic
pH of 7 is?
Neutral
pH values greater than 7 are?
Basic
pH values less than 7 are ?
Acidic
The closer the pH value to 7
the weaker the acid or base.
Buffers prevent
rapid change in pH
The solute dissolves in the?
Solvent
A solution is made of of a solvent and a?
Solute
The solubility of solutes in solvents depends on?
Temperature
Pressure
Concentration
Polarity
The law of conservation of matter is?
Matter is neither lost or gained, in a chemical reaction, it simply changes form.
Effective collission of molecules depends on?
Orientation of molecules
Activation energy (EA)
The energy of a collission depends on ?
Speed & approach
Exothermic Reaction
Energy is released out
Endothermic reaction
Absorbs heat
Molecules move faster & bang into each other & break thier bonds.
Atoms will re arrange and energy will release into the end product
The lower EA (activation energy)
The faster the reaction
The higher the EZ (activation energy)
The slower the reaction
A catalyst
Lowers the reaction energy (EA)
Enzymes act as catalysts for
biochemical reactions
Adding reactants shifts the reaction to the
Right
Removing reactants shifts reaction to the
Left
Remove the product the reaction shifts to the
Righ
Exothermic reactions produce
heat
increased temperature =
more reactants
Acid + Base ->
Salt of acid + H2O
More Hydrogen
More Acid / Lower pH value
Less Hydrogen
Less Acid -> Alkaline
Higher pH value