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111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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1 km
1000 m
1 m
10 dm
1 m
100 cm
1 m
1000 mm
1 m
1 x 10 micrometers (um)
1 m
1 x 10 nanometers (nm)
1 m
1 x to picometers (pm)
1 L
1000 mL 1000 cm 1 dm
K
C = 273
C
K-273
Energy
1 cal = 4.184 Joule (J)
D=
M/V
V=
M/D
M=
D X V
Speed=
dist/time
Time=
dist/speed
Distance=
speed x time
E=
hf
Frequency=
speed of light / wavelength
Speed of light=
3.00 x 10 m/s
Wavelength=
speed of light / frequency
1 hour=
60 minutes
1 min=
60 seconds
1 hour=
3600 seconds
Atomic number
gives us the number of protons in the nucleus (the number of protons identify the element)
number of neutrons=
mass number - atomic number
The atomic number doesnt give you both the protons and electrons, it officialy gives you the number of protons and you assume its the number of electrons
true
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in the atom (atomic mass rounded)
chemical symbol
is a shorter way of writing an element. the mass is on the left top corner and the atomic number is on the bottom left corner.
why arent the masses on the periodic table for each element whole numbers?
scientists take into account the 5 abundance when calculating the average atomic mass
how do you calculate the isotope?
1. move decimal 2 places to left to get rid of the 5
2. multiply answers from 3 1 by mass of the appropriate isotope
3. add your answer from step 2
4. write answer in amu (atomic mass unit)
This is known as the weighted atomic mass)
isotopes
atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons (these will have different masses)
what is the mass of a proton
1 amu
what is the mass of a neutron
1 amu
what is the mass of a electron
0 amu (1/1840 amu)
atomic mass unit
1/12 the mass of a carbon atom
The Bohr Model
How the energy of an atom changes when it absorbs or emits light. An electron is found only in specific circular paths, or orbitas, around the nucleus. The farthe away from the nucleus, the closer together the energy levels are to one another. Amount of energy in a quantum can change. Electrons dont want to stay in the exciting state (they want to jump back to the ground state and release the same packet of energy int he form of light) Electrons are alsways moving and need to be supplied with energy.
The Quantum Mechanical Atom
modern description of the electrons in an atom.It determines the allowed energies an electron can have and how likely it is to find the electron in various locations aroudn the nucleus
maxiumum number of electrons in energy level 1
2
maxiumum number of electrons in energy level 2
8
maxiumum number of electrons in energy level 3
18
maxiumum number of electrons in energy level 4
32
principle quantum number
designates energy level (or section)
sublevel (row)
within the section of the energy level but ina different position
sublevel s
2 electrons, 1 oribital, sphere
sublevel p
6 electrons, 3 orbitals, dumbell
sublevel d
10 electrons, 5 orbitals, clover
sublevel f
14 electrons, 7 orbitals, funky
electron configuration
shorthand configuration to show where the electrons are
what does the arrangment of electrons determines?
the chemical properties of an element
if you add up the superscripts in an electron configuration you get what?
number of electrons
after the 1 sublevel is full, why do electrons then fill the 2 s sublevel instead of the 2 p?
electrosn always want to be on the least energy level closest to the nucleus ("ground state")
shortcuts for electron configuration
use the noble gasses from the previous period and write the electron configuration
Aufbau Principle
electrongs occupy orbitals of lowest levels. orbital filling diagrams.
Paul exclusion principle
electrons have to have opposite spin
unshared electrons
you do the orbital filling diagrams and whichever isnt complete is one unshared electron
highest energy level
add the superscripts of all the highest energy level numbers
Hunds Rule
the elecrons are going to occupy the orbitals singly before pairing up
exceptions to electron configurations
Cr and Cu
what does light consist of?
waves
what does each wave cycle start at
0
amplitude of a wave
waves height from zero the crest
wavelength
the distance bewteen the crests
frequency
number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of time (hertz)
electromagnetic radiation or spectrum radiation
radio waves, microwaves, infared waves, visible light, ultraviolet waves, x rays and gamma rays. all of hten travel ina vaccuum at a speed of light. light energy that comes from the sun.
different frequencies seperate into a what
spectrum of colors
atomic emission spectrum
whent the light passes through the prism, the frequencies of light emitted by an element separate into discrete lines to give the atomic emisison spectrum of the element
continuous spectrum
rainbow pattern that appears when white light is seperated
spectroscope
instrument used to separate light
atomic emission spectrum or line spectrum
looks like a bar caode (like the fingerprints of an element)
Doberrine
traids of elements whith similar properties
Mendeleev
arranged elements in groups with similar properties and ordered elements by increasing atomic mass
Moseley
arranged elements by atomic number instead of mass (how it is now)
periodic law
with elements arranged by increasing atonic number, there is a repeating pattern in the physical and chemical properties
metals
solid, good conductors of heat, ductile, malleable, other than mercury (solid at room temp)
nonmetals
most gasses, brittle, not good conductors of heat. S and P are solids and Br is a liquid
metalloids
have properties of both metals and nonmetals
group 1
alkali metals
group 2
alkaline earth metal
group 18
noble gases
group 17
halogens
"d" (block elements)
transition metals
groups 1,2,13-17 s + p block
representative elemetns
"f" block
inner transition metals
group/families
vertical
periods
horizontal
atomic radius
up and down it increases and left to right decreases
reason why atomic atomic radius increases going up and down
reason why atomic radius decreases going left to right
period trend
a pattern that changes across a period, yet repeats itself in the next period
ions
at atom or a grou of atoms with a charge
cation
looses electrons and has a positive charge
anions
gains electrons and is a neggative charge
are metals usually cations or anions?
cations
are nonmetals usually cations or anions?
anions
which is smaller? (atomic radius) Na +1 or Na
Na +1
which is smaller (atomic radius) Cl -1 or Cl
Cl
group 1 (charge of ion)
+ 1
group 2 (charge of ion)
+ 2
group 13
+ 3
group 18
do not form ions
group 17 (charge of an ion)
- 1
group 16 (charge of an ion
- 2
group of 15 (charge of an ion)
- 3
group 14 (charge of an ion)
no trend, has metals, nonmetals, and nonmetals
Ionization Energy
amount of energy required to remove one electron from an atom in the gaseous state. Increases going left to right and decreases going up to down.
reaons why the ionization energy decreases going up to down
reaons why the ionization energy increases going left to right
first ionization energy
taking away the last, loose, electron
it is harder to take an electron away from Li than K because Li has a higher first ionization energy (closer to than nucleus)
true
Units for ionization energy
K J/ mole
Octet rule
atoms will gain, loose, or share electrons to attain an octet--> a full sublevel
MIDTERM
MIDTERM