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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Steps in the scientific method
1)form an observation
2)formulate a hypothesis
3)experiment
4)form a conclusion
defintion of law
rule of nature that sums up related observations and experimental results to DESCRIBE a pattern in nature
theory
EXPLANATION based on many observations supported by experimental data; can never be proven, used as a working format
shows kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit
chemical formula
how to write chemical formulas
Symbol (C, H, O) and then Subscript
result of a chemical change
chemical reaction
how to write chemical reactions
Reactants--->Products
physical property
observed property that can be altered without changing its chemical composition
chemical property
characteristic of a material that controls a material's action with other materials
ex. of physical properties
melting, freezing, dissolving, breaking
ex. of chemical properties
rusting, burning
molar mass
mass of a mole of any substance
kilo=
1000
deci=
1/10
centi=
1/100
milli=
1/1000
how to convert Kelvins to Celsius
C=K-273 and K=C+273
dimensional analysis
uses of units that are part of measurements to solve a problem
subatomic particles--what charge and where located
electrons: negatively-charged, located in energy levels outside the nucleus
protons: positively-charged, located within the nucleus
neutrons: neutral charge, located within the nucleus
atomic mass
1/12 the mass of a Carbon 12 atom that contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons
atomic number
number or protons in the nucleus of an atom
isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
formula unit
lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
polyatomic ion
tightly-bound groups of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge
polyatomic ions end in...
-ate or -ite
compound composed of 2 elements --metal cation plus nonmetal anion
ionic binary compound
ionic binary compound naming
1)name of cation first 2)anion ends in -ide
compounds composed of 2 non-metallic elements
molecular binary compound
molecular binary compound naming
use prefixes to indicate number of atoms of each element, second element ends in -ide
S+O2--->SO2
combination
SO2--->S+O2
decomposition
Fe+CuSO4--->FeSO4+Cu
single-replacement
AgNO3+KCl--->AgCl+KNO3
double-replacement
CH4+2HO2--->CO2+2H2O+heat+light
combustion
acid
compounds that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
endothermic
absorbs heat from surroundings--positive
exothermic
releases heat to its surroundings-negative
STP for gases
0 degrees C and pressure of 101.3kPa or 1 atm
specific heat formula
Heat (joules or calories)
-------------------------
mass x change in temp C

q
-----
m x T