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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
variable
different factors in an experiment that can change
constant variables
variables that stay the same
independent variable
variable that changes
dependent variable
depends on the independent variable
control
baseline comparison
accuracy
how close the measurement is to the accepted value
accepted value
generally accepted measurement based on reliable sources.
precision
the consistency that something is measured at
experimental value
the measurement that you get
error
experiment value - accepted value
% error
|error|/ accepted x 100
quantitative
deals with #'s. need an instrument to measure
qualitative
uses words to describe
significant measures
all of known digits +1 that is estimated
formula to convert Celsius to Kelvin
k=c+273
formula for density
d=m/v
density
a physical property that does not change when mass changes.
formula for volume
V= 4/3 (pi r^3)
formula for circumference
C=(2 pi r)
Democritus
atomos; indestructible, made up all matter only one type of atom.
Dalton
took Democritus' theory and scientifically tested it.
Dalton's 4 part Theory
1. All elements made of small indivisible atoms.
2. all atoms of 1 elements are the same but atoms of diff elements are diff.
3. atoms can physically mix and chemically combine (in whole # ratios)
4. you cannot change one atom from one element into another element
atoms
smallest particle that maintains its identity in a chemical reaction
proton
positive, relative mass: 1
neutron
neutral, relative mass: 1
electron
negative, relative mass 1/1840
JJ Thompson
discovered electron using cathode ray tube and developed plum pudding model
Ernest Rutherford
gold foil experiment
isotopes
2 atoms with the same number of protons but different number of electron.
average atomic mass
weighted avg. mass of all atomic mass of isotopes
formula for average atomic mass
(avg. mass iso. 1 * % abundance/100) + (avg, mass. iso. 2 * % abundance/100)
quantum mechanical model
based on the probability of location of an electron
Schrodinger/ Heisenberg
can't tell exactly where atoms are; found equation based on energy, electrons moved around the atom; fuzzy cloud.
mechanics
movement
quantum
amount of energy
atomic orbital
region of space where an electron could be found according to its energy
Bohr
planetary model; electron orbiting in a circular path based on energy level
electron configuration
where electron are locate in atom
aufbau principle
electrons occupy orbitals of lower energy 1st before moving on to higher ones
pauli exclusion principle
orbitals can have a max of 2 electrons and they must spin in opposite directions
Hund's rule
electrons on the same sub-level will try and have as many like spins as possible
valence shell
highest energy level of an atom; outer most electrons; determine elements properties.
JW Dobereiner
1829 organized elements into triads
Mendeleev
Arranged in order of atomic mass' left space of undiscovered elements
Mosely
1913; arranged according to atomic #
periodic law
when elements arranged in order there is periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
metals
ductile, malleable
non-metals
brittle
metalloid
share properties of both, can change properties
atomic radius
1/2 distance between 2 nuclei of a diatomic molecule
ionization energy
energy required to completely remove a valence electron from a gaseous atom
electron negativity
relative ability of an atom to attract a shared electron in a compound.
ionic
metal and non-metal
covalent
just non-metals