• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Front

### How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/54

Click to flip

### 54 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 variable different factors in an experiment that can change constant variables variables that stay the same independent variable variable that changes dependent variable depends on the independent variable control baseline comparison accuracy how close the measurement is to the accepted value accepted value generally accepted measurement based on reliable sources. precision the consistency that something is measured at experimental value the measurement that you get error experiment value - accepted value % error |error|/ accepted x 100 quantitative deals with #'s. need an instrument to measure qualitative uses words to describe significant measures all of known digits +1 that is estimated formula to convert Celsius to Kelvin k=c+273 formula for density d=m/v density a physical property that does not change when mass changes. formula for volume V= 4/3 (pi r^3) formula for circumference C=(2 pi r) Democritus atomos; indestructible, made up all matter only one type of atom. Dalton took Democritus' theory and scientifically tested it. Dalton's 4 part Theory 1. All elements made of small indivisible atoms. 2. all atoms of 1 elements are the same but atoms of diff elements are diff. 3. atoms can physically mix and chemically combine (in whole # ratios) 4. you cannot change one atom from one element into another element atoms smallest particle that maintains its identity in a chemical reaction proton positive, relative mass: 1 neutron neutral, relative mass: 1 electron negative, relative mass 1/1840 JJ Thompson discovered electron using cathode ray tube and developed plum pudding model Ernest Rutherford gold foil experiment isotopes 2 atoms with the same number of protons but different number of electron. average atomic mass weighted avg. mass of all atomic mass of isotopes formula for average atomic mass (avg. mass iso. 1 * % abundance/100) + (avg, mass. iso. 2 * % abundance/100) quantum mechanical model based on the probability of location of an electron Schrodinger/ Heisenberg can't tell exactly where atoms are; found equation based on energy, electrons moved around the atom; fuzzy cloud. mechanics movement quantum amount of energy atomic orbital region of space where an electron could be found according to its energy Bohr planetary model; electron orbiting in a circular path based on energy level electron configuration where electron are locate in atom aufbau principle electrons occupy orbitals of lower energy 1st before moving on to higher ones pauli exclusion principle orbitals can have a max of 2 electrons and they must spin in opposite directions Hund's rule electrons on the same sub-level will try and have as many like spins as possible valence shell highest energy level of an atom; outer most electrons; determine elements properties. JW Dobereiner 1829 organized elements into triads Mendeleev Arranged in order of atomic mass' left space of undiscovered elements Mosely 1913; arranged according to atomic # periodic law when elements arranged in order there is periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties metals ductile, malleable non-metals brittle metalloid share properties of both, can change properties atomic radius 1/2 distance between 2 nuclei of a diatomic molecule ionization energy energy required to completely remove a valence electron from a gaseous atom electron negativity relative ability of an atom to attract a shared electron in a compound. ionic metal and non-metal covalent just non-metals