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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Like a solution, only the solute particles are larger. Too small to be extracted by filtration but usually large enough or charged enough to be separated by a semipermeable membrane (dialysis). They can also scatter light.
Compounds that form ions in aqueous solution.
Molarity (M)
moles of solute / volume of solution
Molality (m)
moles of solute / kilograms of solvent
Mole Fraction (X)
moles of solute / kilograms of solvent
Mass Percentage (%)
(mass of solute / total mass of solution) * 100
Parts Per Million (ppm)
(mass of solute / total mass of solution) * 1,000,000
Measures the number of equivalents per liter of solution. (In an acid-base reaction, an equivalent is defined as the mass of acid or base that can furnish/accept one mole of protons)
3 Steps to Solution Formation
1) breaking of intermolecular bonds btwn solute molecules
2) breaking of intermolecular bonds btwn solvent molecules
3) the formation of intermolecular bonds btwn solvent and solute
T or F: Energy is required to break a bond
A negative heat of solution results in:
stronger intermolecular bonds
A positive heat of solution results in:
weaker intermolecular bonds
When solutions form, entropy _________.
Vapor Pressure
The pressure created by molecules in open space when the rate of molecules leaving the liquid equals the rate of molecules entering the liquid, and equilibrium has been established. (gas and liquid phase in eq.)
What is vapor pressure a function of?
Vapor pressure ___________ with temperature
Occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.
Occurs when the vapor pressure of the solid phase equals the vapor pressure of the liquid phase.
Nonvolatile Solute
-A solute with no vapor pressure

Vapor pressure of the solution is given by Raoult's Law:

Pv = X*Pa

Pv = vapor pressure of soln
Pa = vapor pressure of pure liquid
Volatile Solute
-A solute with vapor pressure

Vapor pressure of the solution is given by Raoult's Law(2):

Pv = Xa*Pa + Xb*Pb
Read Pages 72-73
(On Chemistry Solutions)
Reverse reaction of dissolution, takes place initially at a slower rate.
Saturated Solution
As the salt dissolves and the conc of dissolved salt builds, the rate of dissolution and precipitation equilibrate = SATURATED
Solubility Product (Ksp)
-Use just like any other equilibrium expression (leave out pure solids and liquids)
-Depends only on temperature
For most salts, crystallization is ____________(endo/exothermic)
What does solubility depend on?
The temperature and the ions in the solution.
The maximum number of moles of the solute that can dissolve in solution (usually in mol/L)
Spectator Ions
Added ions in a solution that are not part of the equilibrium expression, and therefore have no effect
Common Ions
-An ion common to an ion in the equilibrium expression
-If added to a saturated solution, it will shift the eq, increasing precipitate, but doesn't affect the Ksp
-A common ion added to an unsaturated solution will NOT change the equilibrium
Solubilities of ionic compounds containing nitrate and alkali metals
All ionic compounds containing nitrate, ammonium, and alkali metals are soluble
Ionic compounds containing halogens are _________, EXCEPT for __________, _________, and _______ compounds
soluble, silver, mercury, and lead compounds
Sulfate compounds are ______, EXCEPT for _______, ______, and the __________
soluble, mercury, lead, heavier alkaline metals (Hg, Pb, Ca, etc)
Compounds containing the heavier alkaline metals are ________ when paired with ______ and _______
soluble, sulfides, hydroxides
Carbonates, phosphates, sulfides, and hydroxides are generally __________
Read Page 77
Chemistry (Solutions)
The solubility of a gas is proportional to:
Vapor Partial Pressure (When we open a can of soda, solubility of gas decreases causing some gas to rise out of solution)
As the temperature increases, the solubility of salts generally ___________
As temperature increases, the solubility of gases ________
T or F: Heavier, larger gases experience greater covalent forces and tend to be less soluble
FALSE: Van der Waals forces, more soluble