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35 Cards in this Set
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What are the four states of matter?

Gas, solid, liquid, plasma


Gases do: (3 things)

exert pressure, have mass, can be compressed


Kinetic molecular theory

gases are small particles with mass and are relatively far apart, in constant rapid and random motion, collide in perfectly elastic conditions, don't exert attractive forces, and the average kinetic energy of a gas depends on the temperature


elastic collision

energy is the same before and after the collision


temperature

a measure of the kinetic energy of particles


kinetic energy formula

Kinetic Energy=1/2 mass (volume squared)


diffusion

movement of one material through another, the lighter the particle the more quickly it diffuses
gases diffuse well 

effusion

gas escaped through a tiny hole


Graham's Law of Effusion and Difussion

gas particles with smaller masses move more rapidly than those with larger particles


Pressure

force per area
units= torr, mm Hg, atm, Pascal, pounds per square inch 

barometer

determines the atmospheric pressure, the changing Mercury pressure on the reservoir changes the Mercury level in the column. One standard atm is equal to the pressure that supports a column of 760 mm Hg at (0) sea level


manometer

measures gas pressure, the pressure of the open end is equal to the atmospheric pressure, the gas pressure is the pressure of the closed end, the difference in the Mercury height is the difference in pressure


Dalton's Law of Partial Particles

the sum of the partial pressures of each gas is equal to the total pressure of the gas mixture


Absolute Zero

temperature at which a gas wold have no volume or motion, 0 Kelvin and 273 Celsius


Boyle's Law

pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperature are inversely proportional to each other
P1(V1) = P2(V2) 

Inversely Proportional

as one increases the other decreases


(STP)Standard Temperature and Pressure

0 degrees Celsius and 273 degrees Kelvin and 1 atm of pressure


Charles' Law

volume and temperature of a gas at a constant pressure are directly proportional to each other
V1/T1= V2/T2 

Gas Law Units

temperature units must be converted to Kelvin from Celsius by adding 273 degrees and the pressure and volume units must be consistant throughout the problem


GayLussac

pressure and temperature of a gas at a constant volume are directly proportional to each other
P2/T1= P2/T2 

Avogadro's Principle

equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles


Molar volume

the volume of mole of gas
22.4 L/mole at STP 

direct proportion

y=kx straight line graph with variables that change in the same direction


inverse proportion

yk/x change inversely and the graph is a hyperbole curving downward to the right


combined gas law

combines GayLussac, Charles' Law, and Boyle's Law; temperature must remain constant {P1(V1)}/T1= {P2(V2)}/T2


Ideal gas law

adding Avogadro's Principle to the combined gas law; equal volumes of a gas at a constant temperature and pressure have equal number of particles
PV= nRT {P1(V1)}/{n1(T1)}= {P2(V2)}/{n2(T2)} real gases behave like ideal gases except in really low temperatures where they have intermolecular attraction and really high pressure where the particle size is a factor 

Molar mass formula

M=DRT/P


Density formula

d=PM/RT


unknown variable formula

n=mass/Molar mass


The variable that stays the same when you are the combined gas law:

temperature


The equation for the combined gas law can be used instead of which equation?

Boyle's Law


relationship between temperature and volume

direct


relationship between temperature and pressure

direct


relationship between volume and pressure

inverse


Avogadro's Constant

6.02 x 10 to the 23rd
