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### 35 Cards in this Set

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 What are the four states of matter? Gas, solid, liquid, plasma Gases do: (3 things) exert pressure, have mass, can be compressed Kinetic molecular theory gases are small particles with mass and are relatively far apart, in constant rapid and random motion, collide in perfectly elastic conditions, don't exert attractive forces, and the average kinetic energy of a gas depends on the temperature elastic collision energy is the same before and after the collision temperature a measure of the kinetic energy of particles kinetic energy formula Kinetic Energy=1/2 mass (volume squared) diffusion movement of one material through another, the lighter the particle the more quickly it diffuses -gases diffuse well effusion gas escaped through a tiny hole Graham's Law of Effusion and Difussion gas particles with smaller masses move more rapidly than those with larger particles Pressure force per area units= torr, mm Hg, atm, Pascal, pounds per square inch barometer determines the atmospheric pressure, the changing Mercury pressure on the reservoir changes the Mercury level in the column. One standard atm is equal to the pressure that supports a column of 760 mm Hg at (0) sea level manometer measures gas pressure, the pressure of the open end is equal to the atmospheric pressure, the gas pressure is the pressure of the closed end, the difference in the Mercury height is the difference in pressure Dalton's Law of Partial Particles the sum of the partial pressures of each gas is equal to the total pressure of the gas mixture Absolute Zero temperature at which a gas wold have no volume or motion, 0 Kelvin and -273 Celsius Boyle's Law pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperature are inversely proportional to each other P1(V1) = P2(V2) Inversely Proportional as one increases the other decreases (STP)Standard Temperature and Pressure 0 degrees Celsius and 273 degrees Kelvin and 1 atm of pressure Charles' Law volume and temperature of a gas at a constant pressure are directly proportional to each other V1/T1= V2/T2 Gas Law Units temperature units must be converted to Kelvin from Celsius by adding 273 degrees and the pressure and volume units must be consistant throughout the problem Gay-Lussac pressure and temperature of a gas at a constant volume are directly proportional to each other P2/T1= P2/T2 Avogadro's Principle equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles Molar volume the volume of mole of gas 22.4 L/mole at STP direct proportion y=kx straight line graph with variables that change in the same direction inverse proportion y-k/x change inversely and the graph is a hyperbole curving downward to the right combined gas law combines Gay-Lussac, Charles' Law, and Boyle's Law; temperature must remain constant {P1(V1)}/T1= {P2(V2)}/T2 Ideal gas law adding Avogadro's Principle to the combined gas law; equal volumes of a gas at a constant temperature and pressure have equal number of particles PV= nRT {P1(V1)}/{n1(T1)}= {P2(V2)}/{n2(T2)} real gases behave like ideal gases except in really low temperatures where they have intermolecular attraction and really high pressure where the particle size is a factor Molar mass formula M=DRT/P Density formula d=PM/RT unknown variable formula n=mass/Molar mass The variable that stays the same when you are the combined gas law: temperature The equation for the combined gas law can be used instead of which equation? Boyle's Law relationship between temperature and volume direct relationship between temperature and pressure direct relationship between volume and pressure inverse Avogadro's Constant 6.02 x 10 to the 23rd