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51 Cards in this Set

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g --> mol
g x 1 mol / average atomic mass
mol --> grams
mol x avg atomic mass/mol
atoms --> mol
atoms x 1 mol/6.022x10^23
moles --> atoms
mol x 6.022x10^23 / 1 mol
atoms --> g
atoms x avg. atomic mass/6.022x10^23
g --> atoms
g x 6.022x10^23 / avg. atomic mas
Equation to get molecular formula
molar mass of compound / empirical formula mass
diatomics
HYDROGEN HON
-helium
-oxygen
-nitrogen
precipitation reaction forms ...
solids!
Arrhenius acid
H+
Arrhenius Base
OH-
Nitrate
NO3-
Sulfate
SO4 -2
precipitation reaction
single replacement
- AB + CD --> AC + BD
acid base reaction
acid + base --> salt + water
- example =
HCL + NaOH -> NaCl H2O
oxidation reduction reactions
transfer of electrons
- between a nonmental and a metal
single replacement (type of oxidation reduction reaction)
A + BC -> B + AC
combustion (type of oxidation reduction reaction)
-prescense of 02
-C reactant
-products are CO2 and H2O
synthesis (type of oxidation reduction reaction)
two molecules coming together to make on big one

-- example: H2 + 02 -> H20
decomposition (type of oxidation reduction reaction)
one reactant broken down into two smaller molecules
g - mol - mol - g
THE STEPS
1) balance
2) g -> mol: g x mol / mm
3) mol ratio: unknown/known coeficient
4)mol -> g: mol x mm/mol
Bohr's model
-positive nucleus with electrons orbiting in quantized levels
s orbital
1

O -- what it looks like
p orbital
3
00 -- what it looks like
d orbital
4 lobes

5
metals ______ electrons
lose
nometals _______ electrons
gain
ionic bond
between opposite charged ions
covalent bond
electrons shared equally
polar covalent bond
electrons not shared equally
Electronegativity chart
0 = covalent
low - 1.9 = polar covalent
greater than 2.0 = ionic
the lowe the Electronegativity the more ________ it is
POSITIVE
dipole
+----->

+ is the positive end

-> is the negative end
when making lewis structures and you have a positive charge : :
need brakets with charge on outside of them

subtract charge
when making lewis structures and you have a negative charge : :
need brakets with charge on outside of them

add charge
resonance
molecule with more than one valid lewis structure
metals _____ electrons to become like ______ noble gas
lose

previous
nonmetals ______ electrons to become like _____ noble gas
gain

next
order of orbitals on periodic table
s
d - has one less than s and p
p
f - f has 2 less than s and p
Pauli exclusion principle
only 2 e- are in an orbital and they have one of each spin
order of boxes
1s
2s
2p
Carbonate
CO3 -2
sulfuric acid
H2SO4
Hydroxide
OH-
Nitric Acid
HNO3
resonance
molecule with more than one valid lewis structure
metals _____ electrons to become like ______ noble gas
lose

previous
nonmetals ______ electrons to become like _____ noble gas
gain

next
order of orbitals on periodic table
s
d - has one less than s and p
p
f - f has 2 less than s and p
Pauli exclusion principle
only 2 e- are in an orbital and they have one of each spin
Ammonium
NH4+