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20 Cards in this Set

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Name this compound as an acid.

HCN
cyanide
-ide = hydro...ic acid

hydrocyanic acid
Name this compound as an acid.

H3PO4
Phosphate
-ate = -ic acid

phosphoric acid
Name this compound as an acid.

(SO3)2-
sulfite
-ite = -ous acid

sulfurous acid
What is the reaction in which 2 water molecules produce ions?
self-ionization of water
What is the ion-product constant for water (Kw)?
Kw = [H+] x [OH-] = 1.0e-14M2
Acid or Base?

pH = 3.2
Acid

Acidic solutions: pH < 7.0
[H+] > 1.0x(10)-7
What is the equation involving [H+] to find the pH value?
pH = -log[H+]
What is the pH of a solution if [OH-]=4.0e-11?
Kw = [4.0e-11]x[H+] = 1.0e-14
so...
1.0e-14/4.0e-11 = 2.5e-4 = [H+]
pH = -log[2.5e-4]
= 3.60 (no units for pH)
Monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic?

H3PO4
triprotic
Arrhenius Acids and Bases
*acids: hydrogen ion (H+) producers
*bases: hydroxide ions (OH-) producers
What is an exception to the Arrhenius Acid and Base rules?
NH3 is a base in water and has no hydroxide
STRONG ACIDS
HCl (hydrochloric acid)
H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)
HNO3 (nitric acid)

*almost everything else is a weak acid*
Define acids and bases under the Bronsted Model.
*Acids donate protons (hydrogen-ion donor)
*Bases accept protons (hydrogen-ion acceptor)

*This explains the behavior of ammonia*
-Ammonia acts as a base b/c it accepts a hydrogen ion from water
NH3 + H20 = (NH4)+ +OH-
-water, the hydrogen-ion donor, is a Bronsted acid
conjugate acid
particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion
e.g. (NH4)+ is conjugate acid of the base NH3
conjugate base
particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
e.g. OH- is the conjugate base of the acid water
conjugate acid base pair
2 substances related by the loss or gain of a single (NOT 2) hydrogen ions

HCl + H20 = H30+ + Cl-
acid base conj.acid conj.base
amphoteric
substance that can act as both an acid and a base (e.g. water)

*in reaction w/ HCl, water accepts a proton and is therefore a base
*in reaction w/ NH3, water donates a proton and is therefore an acid
Define a Lewis acid.
substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
*electron-pair acceptor
Define a Lewis base.
substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
*electron-pair donor
Give an example of Bronsted compared to Lewis.
H+ + OH- = H20
*Here the hydroxide ion is a Lewis base. It is also a Bronsted-Lowry base. The hydrogen ion is both a Lewis acid and Bronsted acid