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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
molecular orbitals
*just as an atomic orbital belongs to a particular atom, a molecular orbital belongs to a molecule as a whole
*the number of molecular orbitals equals the number of overlapping atomic orbitals
-bonding orbital
-antibonding orbital
mixtures composed of 2 or more elements, at least one of which is a metal; properties are often superior to those of component elements: harder and more durable
Gilbert Lewis's Octet Rule of Covalent Bonding
sharing of electrons occurs if the atoms involved acquire the electron configurations of noble gases; configurations contain 8 valence electrons (octet)
coordinate covalent bond (e.g. CO)

:C=O:: (oxygen is stable, carbon is not)
:C~=O: (oxygen donates 2 bonding electrons; ~ is coordinate covalent bond)
(pg. 444)
covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons; shown as arrows from atom donating electron(s) to atom receiving them
bond dissociation energy
total energy required to break the bond between 2 covalently bonded atoms
resonance structures

e.g. ozone
structures that occur when it is possible to write 2 or more valid electron dot formulas that have the same number of electron pairs for a molecule or ion
(connected by double-headed arrows)

The more resonance structures for an atom or ion, the more stable it will be.
substances in which all of the electrons are paired
substances that contain 1 or more unpaired electrons
exceptions to the octet rule
*sometimes it is impossible to write structures that satisfy the octet rule: this occurs whenever the total number of valence electrons is odd
*e.g. NO2: 6+6+5=17 valence electrons
*an unpaired electron is present in both structures
*NO2 however still does not exist as a stable molecule
*other exceptions include some compounds of boron and O2
unshared pairs
pairs of valence electrons that are not shared between atoms
VSEPR Theory
states that because electron pairs repel, molecular shape adjusts so the valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible; unshared pairs of electrons affect the shape of molecules
sigma bond
a bond formed when 2 atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the 2 atomic nuclei
pi bond
a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found the in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms
a process in which several atomic orbitals overlap to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
dipole interactions
the attractions between opposite poles of polar molecules
electronegativity values
in general, the electronegativity values of nonmetallic elements are greater than the electronegativity values of metallic elements
van der Waals forces
a term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include dispersion forces and dipole interactions
polar molecule
a molecule in which one end is slightly positive and the other end is slightly negative
sp values
has a triple bond: sp3
all single bonds: sp
has a double bond: sp2
2 double bonds: sp