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83 Cards in this Set

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the study of the structure, properties, and composition of substances & the changes they undergo
chemistry
a substance that cant be changed into simpler substances under normal lab conditions
element
a purification process in which a liquid is evaporated & then condensed again to a liquid
distillation
a carefully controlled & repeatable procedure for gathering data to test a hypothesis
experiment
matter that has no definite shape or volume; takes the shape of the container
gas
a proposed explanation for observations
hypothesis
a substance formed in a chemical reaction
product
a substance in the gaseous state that is ordinarily a liquid or solid at room temperature
vapor
a substance that can be separated into simpler substances by chemical reactions
compound
a starting substance in a chemical reaction
reactant
a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations & experiments
scientific law
explains observations
scientific theory
a mixture that is not uniform in composition
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture that is completely uniform in composition
homogeneous mixture
states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed in an ordinary chemical or physical process
law of conservation of mass
a form of matter that flows, has a fixed volume, and takes the shape of its container
liquid
the amount of matter that an object contains
mass
anything that has mass and takes up space
matter
ionized gas
plasma
a physical blend of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined
mixture
changes the form of an object but doesnt change compostion
physical change
a method of inquiry involving observation, experiments, hypotheses, & broad explanations called theories
scientific method
matter that has definite shape and volume
solid
a homogeneous mixture
solution
a sample of matter having a uniform and definite composition
substance
the changing of substances to other substances by the breaking of bonds in reactants & the formation of bonds in products
chemical reaction
atoms are converted into another compound; not usually reversible
chemical change
a quality of a substance that can be observed or measured without changing the substances chemical composition
physical property
the ability of a substance to undergo chemical reactions & to form new substances
chemical property
the closeness of a measurement to the true value of what is being measured
accuracy
measurements with a combination of units
derived units
describes the closeness of a set of measurements taken under the same conditions
precision
the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume
density
the zero point on the kelvin temperature scale, equivalent to -273.15 degrees celcius
absolute zero
the temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is 273 & the boiling point is 373
kelvin
the % that a measured value differs from the accepted value
percent error
expression of numbers in the form nX10^n where n is equal to or greater than 1 or less than 10 & n is an integer
scientific notation
a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in matter
temperature
the space occupied by a sample of matter
volume
force that measures the pull of gravity on a given mass
weight
the SI unit for mass
kilogram
the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
atom
atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
anion
in any sample of a chemical compound, the elements are always combined in the same proportion by mass
law of definite proportions
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
atomic number
a unit of mass equal to one-twelth the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic mass unit
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number neutrons
isotopes
a stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode [cathode] of a tube containing a gas at low pressure
cathode ray (vacuum tube)
a negatively charged subatomic particle
electron
a subatomic particle with no charge & a mass of 1 amu: found in the nucleus of the atom
neutron
a positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
proton
the dense central portion of an atom, composed of protons & neutrons
nucleus
the total number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
mass number
any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
cation
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
period
the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
formula unit
the vertical column of elements in the periodic table
group
a compound that produces hydrogen ions in solution, is a hydrogen-ion donor, or an electron-pair acceptor
acid
a tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit & carries a charge
polyatomic ion
group B element charaterized by addition of electrons to d suborbitals
transition metal
one of the classes of elements that includes a large majority of their known elements
metal
one of a class of elements having properties intermediate to metals and nonmetals
metalloid
one of a class of elements that are not lustrous & are generally poor conductors of heat & electricity
nonmetal
a chemical formula that shows the actual number & kind of atoms present in a molecule of a compound
molecular formula
a compound that is composed of molecules
molecular compound
a formula with the lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
empirical formula
a compuond composed of + & - ions
ionic compound
an arrangement of elements into rows & columns according to similarities in their properties
periodic table
group A elements on the periodic table
representative element
a compound containing atoms of 3 different elements, usually containing at least one polyatomic ion
ternary compound
a compound composed of 2 elements
binary compound
a table listing metals in order of decreasing activity
activity series of metals
vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
evaporation
that portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships in chemical reactions; the calculation of quantities of shubstances involved in chemical equations
stoichiometry
the amount of a substance that contains 6.02X10^23 representative particles of that substance
mole
any reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction
limiting reagent
the conversion of a solid to a gas or vapor without passing through the liquid state
sublimation
1 of 2 or more different molecular forms of an element in the same physical state
allotrope
a term used to describe a solid that lacks an ordered internal structure; denotes a random arrangement of atoms
amorphous solid
a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier
catalyst
a substance in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, repeating, & dimensional pattern
crystal
the energy an object has because of its motion
kinetic energy
an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
barometer