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150 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
volume
L x W x H
potential energy
stored energy
kinetic energy
energy of movement
radiant energy
energy in motion
true or false: zeros used for spacing the decimal point are significant.
false
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy changes form
Law of conservation of matter
All matter/atoms are the same, never has changed, never will change.
Law of conservation of mass-energy
Matter gets transformed into energy and vice versa
List five indications of chemical changes
burns, color, bubbles, change in heat/energy change, explosions, rust, smoke
"ide" means the chemical is --charged
negatively
"ium" means the chemical is -- charged
positively
Bromide
Br-1
Sulfide
S2-
Sulfur
S
Nitride
N3-
Chloride
Cl-
Oxide
O2-
Oxygen
O2+
Phosphide
P3-
Phosphorous
P
Flouride
F-
Magnesium
Mg2+
Aluminum
Al3+
iodide
I-
Phosphate
Po4 up 3-
Ammonium
NH4+
Sulfate
SO4 up 2-
Iron II
Fe2+
Iron III
Fe3+
Nitrate
NO3-
Nickel II
Ni2+
Potassium
K+
Zinc
Zn2+
Sodium
Na+
Acetate
CH3COO-
Copper I
Cu+
Copper II
Cu2+
Calcium
Ca2+
Hydrogen
H+; when diatomic H2+
Carbonate
CO3 up 2-
Lithium
Li+
Silver
Ag+
Hypochlorite
OCl-
daltons atomic theory of matter
1. each element is made of extremely small particles (atoms)
2. All atoms in a given element are identical, but they differ from those of any other element
3. Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in any chemical reaction
4. A given compound always has the same relative numbers and kind of atoms
atoms combine to form
substances
atoms are made of particles that have an--
electric charge
ion
an atom that is electrically charged (+/-)
cation
an ion with a + charge
anion
an ion with a - charge
cobalt III
Co3+
cobalt II
Co2+
ions of different elements combine to form
ionic compound
chemical formula
tells us what kind of atoms/ions and how many/ratio
compounds are electronically
neutral
the formula of an ionic compound should be
reduced to give the smallest whole number ratio of ions
process by which a substance or substances are converted into different substances with new chemical and physical properties
chemical reaction
list five examples of chemical reactions
metal>rust
dough>bread
leaves changing color
hair perm
what happens in a chemical reaction?
reactants are converted into products
a chemical equation describes:
exactly what happens in a chemical reaction
list the five types of chemical reactions
1. Direct Combination/Synthesis
2. Decomposition
3. Single-Replacement
4. Double-Replacement
5. Combustion
Atoms that were -- replace other atoms that were --; atoms that were -- replace other atoms that were --!
For single and double replacement reactions, --cations, cations, anions, anions
when reactants react in a combustion rection, they always give off
CO2 and H20
atomic mass
the mass of a single atom (not in grams) given/measures in amu's (atomic mass unit)
atomic mass of any atom is based on the mass of a carbon atom
it's at the bottom of the square on periodic table
formula mass
sum of masses of all atoms in a compound
mole
the number of atoms of the element=the number of atoms in 12.0 g carbon-12
molar mass
the mass of a mole of a substance, or the mass of 6.02 x 10 up 23 particles of that substance
molar mass is the same thing as:
atomic mass
for a compound, molar mass is the same thing as:
formula mass
converting from mass-moles
molar mass (g/mol)
converting from volume to moles
22.4 Liters (only at STP)
converting from particles to moles
6.02 x 10 up 23
moles-moles conversion
ratio of moles in the equation
at a temperature of 0 degrees celcius, and a pressure of 1 atmosphere, 1 mole of any gas has a volume of
22.4 L...this is STP which stands for standard temperature and pressure
percent composition
the percent of the mass of compound made up by each element
empirical formula
formula that gives us the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a covalent compound
molecular formula
formula giving actual numer of atoms in a covalent compound; not necessarily lowest terms
*in order to find molecular you have to find empirical
using chemical formulas and equations to figure out amounts of substances that undergo chemical changes
stoichiometry
matter is neither created nor destroyed, atoms cannot be gained or lost, even during a chemical reaction nothing is destroyed it just changes, the total mass of the reactants in a chemical reaction must equal the mass of the products.
law of conservation of matter
balanced chemical equations give us both the relative number of -- and the relative number of ---
--atoms/particles---moles
the reactant thats used up in a chemical reaction
limiting reagent
the reactant that's left over in a chemical reaction
excess reagent
the limiting reagent determines
how much product is formed!
in chemical reactions, atoms are rearaanged and new substances are formed. based on these arrangements, chemical reactions can either absorb or release--
energy
the energy exchanged between objects due to a difference in temperature
heat
study of changes in heat that accompany chemical reactions (chemistry having to do with heat)
thermochemistry
exothermic reaction
reaction that gives off or releases heat into the surroundings (-)
endothermic reaction
reaction that takes in or absorbs heat from the surroundings
measure of heat absorbed or released by a chemical reaction occurring at constant pressure
enthalpy change
enthalpy change for reactants in their standard state being converted to products in standard state.
standard enthalpy change
standard state (for enthalpy change)
1 atm and 25 degrees celcius
caloric theory
early scientists thought heat was an invisible, weightless liquid that flowed from hotter objects to cooler objects
kinetic theory
currently accepted; heat comes from the motion and vibrations of particles of matter.
heat is the transfer of kinetic energy (of motion) from a hotter object to a cooler one (at the atomic level so it's not visible)
an exothermic reaction releases heat, so the temperature of the surroundings
increase
an endothermic reaction absorbs heat, so the temperature of the surroundings
decreases
calorimetry
the study of heat flowand heat measurement, allows scientists to measure the standard enthalpy change by using calorimeter.
specific heat
the amount of heat required to raise 1gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
describe a proton and its (charges, mass, and location)
charge of +1
mass of 1 amu
location- in the nucleus
describe an electron (charge, mass, location)
-1 charge
mass, so small we ignore
located outside nucleus
neutrons
describe location, charge, mass
no charge, neutral
mass about 1 amu
located inside nucleus
mass number
the sum of the protons and neutrons
found by taking the # protons and adding to the # neutrons
how do you know how many electrons there are?
there are the same number of electrons as neutrons, unless it has a charge in which case if it's positive there is one more electron and if it's negative that means there is one less
recall what you know about the electron
electrons only have specific energies
electrons have wavelike properties
we cant know the location and where the electron is going at the same time
What does the quantum mechanical model do?
describes the electron using the idea of ELECTRON DENSITY
region around the nucleus where there is a high probability of finding an electron of a given energy.
orbital
gives a definite electron path
orbit
lowest energy orbital to highest in letters; number of orbitals each one holds, and shapes
s, p, d, f
1 3 5 7
s=sphere
p=dumbbell
d, f =complex
if the quantum number/principal energy level is n=3, how many sublevels are there?
3
describe the characteristics of metals
location: left of zigzag
properties: shiny
good conductors of energy
solids at room temperature
malleable (can be hammered into a thin sheet)
ductile (can be pulled into thin wires)
properties of nonmetals
right of zigzag
not shiny
poor conductors of heat and electricity
may be solids, liquids, or gases
neither melleable, or ductile
semimetals
touching zz line
valence electrons
electrons that occupy the highest principle energy level/have highest quantum number level, determine chemical reactivity of the atom
periodic law
when the elements are arrangedin order of increasing atomic number, we can see the trends in their chemical and physical properties
groups
vertical columns in periodic table
periods
horizontal rows in periodic table
alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, noble gases
groups in periodic table
atomic radius
distance from center of nucleus to outermost electron
as you move down a column
atomic radius increases
ionization energy decreases
electronegativity decreases
a cation is -- than the corresponding neutral atom
because it has lost an electron making it positive, it is --smaller
an anion is -- than its corresponding neutral atom
because it has gained an electron, it is larger than its corresponding neutral atom
metals form
cations
nonmetals form
anions
ionization energy
energy required to remove an electron from and atom or an ion
as you move across a period, the
atomic radius decreases
ionization energy increases
electronegativity increases
electron affinity
the energy abosorbed (required) or released for an atom or ion to gain an electron
the closer an atom is to filling its valence shell, the --its electron affinity
greater; because more energy is released and it wants an electrom
the atom's ability to attract electrons
electronegativity
electrons are only allowed to have certain - corresponding to different amounts of -- (ie. the energy of an electron is --)
orbits, energies, quantized.
when an electron is falling back down to its ground state, -- is emitted
light
frequency determines the -- of the light emitted when an electron drops back down to its ground state
color
excited state
higher energy level so in order for an electron to be in an Excited state, something would have to happen to it (further from nucleus, higher energy)
DEBROGLIE and matter waves
he predicted that all moving objects exhibit wavelike behavior; electrons have wavelike properties
he related mass-wavelength
HEISENBERG uncertainty principle
you cannot know the precise location of an object and exactly where it is going at the same time
makes no difference for larger objects
how does the heisenberg uncertainty principle affect a tiny particle like an electron
to locate an electron, you have to shine light on it, and by doing so, by hitting it with photons, its path is being changed
height of wave
amplitude
wavelength
distance from crest to crest
how fast the wave moves back and forth in a given amount of time
frequency
less wavelength =
larger frequency
larger wavelength=
smaller frequency
speed
how fast the wave moves through space
photons-
light particles carrying small amounts of energy
photoelectric effect-
when light was shined on certain metals, electrons were emitted
light is dual natured it is:
wave and particle
red- what level energy
low energy, lower frequency
violet- what level energy
higher energy, higher frequency
planck's quantum theory/equation
objects can only abosorb or release energy in fixed amounts, called quanta
e=hv relates energy of wave to frequency
the aufbau principle
electrons are put into the lowest enerfy orbitals one at a time until all of the electrons are accounted for
the number of electrons in a neutral atom= # of protons =
atomic #
list the diagonal rule
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, 5f, 6s, 6p, 6d, 6f
the pauli exclusion principle
when two electrons are in the same orbital, they will spin in opposite directions (have opposite spins) two arrows, one goes up, one down
hund's rule
in a given sublevel, one electron will go into each orbital before beginning to pair