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55 Cards in this Set

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Chemistry def.
Study of properties and behavior of matter
heterogeneous
nonuniform composition (it varies)
it can....
homogeneous
uniform (same composition throughout)
it cant....
pure substances
one thing; cannot be purified
soluions
mixture
sweet tea
compound
elements united by processing (2 or more)
pound together
element
cannot be divided by processing
a fundamental unit/base
3 types of physical seperations
filtration;chromatography; distillation
shifting sugar;papertowel and grape drink; boiling
law of definite porportions (Law of constant compositions)
the composition of a pure substance is the same regardless of its source
no matter where it is from...
physical properties
a property that can be measured w/o changing the identity of the substance
color;odor;density(volume and mass)
intensive property
independent of sample size
density
extensive properties
depend on sample size
mass and volume
physical change
same stu but looks different( change physical appearance identity is same)
melting/boiling
chemical properties
transofrmation of a susbtance into a chemically different substance.
water and sodium metal>hydrogen gas and sodium hydoxide "lye"
fundamental units

derived units
can get measure diretly

cannot be measured directly
Standard units of measure.
Seven Base units
Mass(kilogram;kg)
Length(meter;m)
Time(seconds;s)
Current(ampere(amp);A)
Temperature(kelvin;K)
Amt of Substance(mole;mol)
kg
m

A
K
mol
prefix units
Mega(M;10^6)
Kilo(k;10^3)
Centa(c;10^-2)
Milli(m;10^-3)
Micro(u;10^-6)
M
k
c
m
u
Formula for Kelvin
K=degrees Celcius + 273
Formula for Celcius
C= 5/9 (degrees Farenheit - 32)
What is the common unit for volume?
Liter
______ of coke
Different forms for Volume
1L=1dm^3=1000cm^3=1000mL
Mass
the measure of the amount of material in an object
Mass is not weight
Accuracy
measurements that are close to teh "correct" value
bullseye!
precision
measurements taht are close to each other
you two almost hit the same spot!
Daltons atomic theory of matter
1. each element is composed of an atom
2. all atoms of a element are identical; all atoms of different element are different
3. atoms of an element are not changed into different types of atoms by chemical reaction
4.compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element are combined
there are four.
1. composed of...
2.atoms of the element are...; different elements are...
3.NOT by chemical reaction
4.more than one element are...
law of constant composition
in a given compound the relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant.
constant
law of multiple proportion
when two elements form diffrerent compounds, the mass ratio of the elements in one compound is related to the mass ratio in the other by a small whole number
mass ratio
J.J. Thompson
determined charge/mass of electron
1.76 x 10^8 c/g
Millikan
Oil drop experiment( charge on an electron (1.60x10^-19)
oil
radioactivity
the spontaneous emission of radiation
spontaneous
3 types of radiation
1.alpha particles-positiviely chareged helium atoms
2. Beta particles-electron ejected from nucleus
3.gamma Ray-ray not a particle(most penetrating)
alpha
beta
gamma
the nuclear atom
most of the volume must consist of a low mass, diffuse negativley charged electron cloud.
nucleus
a dense positive charged object
atomic number
number of protons in the nucleus
mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
isotopes
atoms of an element with varying numbers of neutrons
atomic weight
weighed average of the mass of the various isotopes of an element
mole
the amount of substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of 12C
Avogadros number
6.02x 10^23
group 1
alkali metals
group 2
alkaline earthe metals
group 16
chalcogens
group 17
halogens
group 18
inert gases
molecular formula
a formula wheich gives the actual number and type of atoms in a moolecule
empirical formula
a formula which gives the lowest whole number ratio of atoms in a molecule
condensed formula
a formula which indicates how atoms are grouped together in a molecule
structural formula
a formula which shows hwo the atoms of a molecule are joined
molecualr models
these are three dimensional representation of molecules
electron transfer rule
if an electron is removed or added to a neutral atom a charged particle or ion is formed
prediciton ionic charged
1.metals tend to form cations
2.non-metals tend oto form anions
polyatomic ions
molecules can alos gain or lose electrons and form ions
ionic compounds
a compound that contains positively charged ions and negativiely charged ions
molecular weight
the sum of the atomic weights of each atom in the molecular formula
formula weight
the general term, molecuule weight refers epecifically to molecular compounds. the sum of the atomic weights of each atom in the chemical formula