Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/140

Click to flip

140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the study of structure and properties of matter
chemistry
one who studies the structure and properties of matter in order to figure out something or make something new
chemist
designs, builds, and operates a chemical plant
chemical engineer
an explanation of a phenomenon; must have a great deal of evidence
theory
a specific kind of matter
chemical
anything that has the property of inertia
matter
the tencency to maintain the present state of motion
inertia
the capacity to do work
energy
energy: motion, faster is more
kinetic energy
energy: position (where something could make it move); higher is more (in accordance to gravity)
potential energy
energy: transferred in electromagnetic waves
radiant energy
rule of nature
law
mass is conserved; mass can neither be created nor destroyed
law of conservation of mass
energy is conserved; energy can neither be created nor destroyed
law of conservation of energy
Einstein's revised law; mass-->energy, energy-->mass; the total amount of matter and energy in the universe is constant
law of conservation of mass/energy
observation --> problem
hypothesis --> educated guess
experiment --> test
analyze --> right or wrong
scientific method
10^12 or 1,000,000,000,000
tera (T)
10^9 or 1,000,000,000
giga (G)
10^6 or 1,000,000
mega (M)
10^3 or 1,000
kilo (k)
10^-1 or 1/10
deci (d)
10^-2 or 1/100
centi (c)
10^-3 or 1/1000
milli (m)
10^-6 or 1/1,000,000
micro
10^-9 or 1/1,000,000,000
nano (n)
10^-12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000
pico (p)
converting units
e.g. convert 225 meters to megameters

(225 m/1)(1 Mm/1,000,000)=.000225 Mm
dimensional analysis
descriptive
qualitative
a number
quantitative
distance between two points; measured in meters (m); measured by meter stick
length
the amount of matter; measured in kilograms (kg); measured by balance scale
mass
interval between two events; measured in seconds (s); measured by a watch
time
averaged kinetic energy of particles; measured in kelvin (K); measured by thermometer
temperature
rate at which charge moves through a wire; measured in ampere (amp, A); measured by ammeter
electric current
measured in moles (mol)
chemical quantity of a substance
brightness; measured in candela (cd)
luminous intensity
amount of space; V=l*w*h; derived from length
amount of space
D=m/V; derived from mass and lenght
density
measure of force of gravity; SI unit is newton (N); 1 N=1kg*m/s^2; derived from mass, length, and time
weight
correctness
accuracy
reproducibility in a measurement
precision
general term meaning on e kind of matter
material
2 or more materials mixed together
mixture
physically separate part of a mixture
phase
the boundary between two phases
interface
mixture that is the same throughout e.g. salt water
homogeneous
mixture that is not the same throughout e.g. ice water
heterogeneous
a homogeneous mixture
solution
what is dissolved (the lesser amount) in a solution
solute
what the solute is dissolved in (greater amount)
solvent
a way to quantify the concentration of a solution
molarity
a homogeneous material that always has the same composition e.g. salt: NaCl, sulfur: S, water: H2O
substance
a substance made of only one kind of atom
element
a substance made of 2 or more kinds of atoms
compound
regardless of the amount of a compound it is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions
the law of definite proportions
when different compounds of the same elements are formed e.g. CO, CO2, CO3;always combine in small whole-number ratios
the law of multiple proportions
has a shape and volume; particles are close together
solid
has volume but no shape; particles aren't as close
liquid
has no shape or volume; particles are far apart
gas (vapor)
has no shape and no volume; particles very far apart
plasma (ionized gas)
removed electrons done by lots of heat; most matter in universe is on this state
ionized gas (plasma)
depends on the amount (mass, weight, volume)
extensive properties
not dependant on amount (color, shape, melting and boiling points, malleable, ductile, density)
intensive properties
change in a physical property; no new substance formed e.g. ice melts, still H2O
physical changes
attraction for molecules in paper
polarity
change in which new substance is formed; often energy is released or absorbed
chemical change
All matter is made of atoms.
All atoms of the same element are identical.
Atoms combine in simple ratios to form compounds.
John Dalton's Atomic Theory
number of protons in one atom of element (also number of electrons)
atomic number
an atom of the same element but with different mass because different number neutrons
isotope
one particular kind of atom
nuclide
a particle in the nucleus (proton, neutron)
nucleon
number of nucleons (protons + neutrons0
mass number
average mass of all the isotopes of an element (bottom number)
atomic mass
23
Na
11

How many protons?
Neutrons?
Electrons?
11
12
11
characterized by lambda; measured in meters
wavelength
v=3.00*10^8
speed of light
developed quantum theory
Max Planck
radiant energy is not just waves it is also particles called photons or quanta (bundles of energy); energy of the light is not proportional the the intensity (brightness), it is related to frequency
Equation:
E=hf, h=6.63E-34
electron gains energy and moves up to a higher energy level then drops back to its original energy level therefore gives off energy in the form of light
Planck's quantum theory
the study of quanta or photons (very small particles)
quantum mechanics
developed the equation that relates particles to waves
Erwin Schrodinger
used Schrodinger's equation to calculate the probability of finding the electron in a hydrogen atom at any given position (53 picometers from nucleus)
Max Born
quantum number:
the energy level (principal quantum number); tells how many electrons are in each energy level (n=1 -> 2, n=2 -> 8, etc)...max #=2n^2; largest atoms have 7 energy levels
n
quantum number:
the sublevel; s-->2 electrons, p-->6 electrons, d-->10 electrons, f-->14 electrons; n=1 --> s; n=2 --> s, p; n=3 --> s,p,d; n=4 --> s,p,d,f
l
quantum number:
the orbital-path for 2 electrons; degenerate orbitals- orbitals that have the same amount of energy there same n and same l
m
quantum number:
the spin of the electron (clockwise or counter clockwise); 2 electrons in the same orbital always have opposite spins
s
no two electrons in the same atom have all four quantum numbers the same
Pauli Exclusion Principle
how difficult it is to stop a moving object; =mass*velocity; P=mv
momentum
It is impossible to know botht he position and the momentum of an electron simultaneously
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
model in which electrons spinning around the nucleus form a cloud of negative stuff
electron cloud model
arranged elements by atomic masses but found similar chemical properties where not just every 8; found pattern but there were some holes, turned out those elements had not been discovered yet
Dmitri Mendeleev
found very few exceptions to Mendeleev's pattern; arranged elements by atomic number then pattern worked
Henry Mosely
chemical properties of elements are a function of atomic numbers
periodic law
alkali metals
first group on periodic table
alkaline earth metals
second group on periodic table
chalcogens
sixteenth group on periodic table
halogens
seventeenth group on periodic table
noble gases
eighteenth group on periodic table
short columns on periodic table
transition elements (metals)
next to bottom row on periodic table
lanthanoids
bottom row on periodic table
actinoids
an atom with 8 electrons in its highest energy level is chemically stable
octet rule
electrons in the highest energy level
valence electrons
hard and shiny; solids; good conductors of heat and electricity; tend to have 1, 2, 3 valence electrons, malleable
metals
not hard or shiny; poor conductors; tend to have 5, 6, 7, 8, valence electrons; brittle (if solid)
nonmetals
have some properties of both metals and nonmetals
metalloids
radius of an atom; distance from nucleus to the highest electron; down a group - increases; across a period - decreases slightly
atomic radius
radius of an ion; if ion is positive by losing - decreases; if ion is negative gaining - decreases
ionic radius
energy required to remove the outermost electron; move across a period - increases (gets more difficult to remove); move done a group - decreases (shielding effect: how much stuff between nucleus and energy level)
first ionization energy
gain 1 electron, lose 1 electron, share its one elctron with another atom
ways hydrogen can bond with other elements
different structural forms of the same element
Carbon:
1. graphite: carbon in chains
2. diamond: carbon in diamond shape, much like baseball field

Oxygen:
1. O2 in atmosphere
2. O3 ozone
allotropes
one or more symbols sometimes with subscripts to represent a compound
chemical formula
electrostatic force holding ions together in an ionic compound; high melting points, soluble in water, good conductors of electricity in molten state, well defined crystals, large amount of energy released when formed
ionic bond
more than one atom becoming an ion
polyatomic ions
attraction of metal positive ions for the delocalized valence electrons
metallic bonding
mixture of a metal and another element
alloy
bond holding atoms together because they share electrons (to get 8 valence electrons); result is molecule; low melting point, poor conductor, brittle
covalent bond
molecules made of 2 atoms of the same element
diatomic molecule
which are diatomic molecules?
elements that end in "gen" or "ine"
name the prefixes in covalent compounds in order
mono
di
tri
tetra
penta
electronegativity difference is great
ionic
electronegativity difference is small
covalent
electronegativity of 1.67
either ionic or covalent
which type of bond, ionic or covalent, is most likely to be formed
bond character
the relative tendency to gain electrons when forming a bond
electronegativity
imaginary line in a molecule between the nucleus of one atom and the nucleus of another atom
bond axis
distance between the nucleus of one atom and the nucleus of another atom in a molecule
bond length
number of degrees between bond axes in a molecule
bond angle
radius of an atom not bonded to anything
atomic radius
raduis of an ion
ionic radius
radius of an atom that is covalently bonded to another atom
covalent radius
minimum distance between nucleus of bonded atom and next closes molecule
van der Waals
a compound that contains carbon; exceptions- CO2, CO;
organic compounds
name the organic prefixes in order
meth
eth
prop
but
pent
hex
hept
oct
non
dec
two or more substance combined to form new substance
chemical reaction
AB+C --> CB+A
single displacement
AB+CD --> AD+CB
double displacement
A+B --> AB
synthesis
AB --> A+B
decomposition
organic compound + oxygen --> CO2 + H2O
combustion
Amadeo Avagadro
discovered number of particles