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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a Physical Change?
A change that does not effect the composition of a substance but changes its appearance.
What is a Chemical Change?
Atoms rearrange, so the original substance is now a new substance.
What is matter?
Anything that occupies space and has mass
What are the two ways matter is classified?
According to its state and composition
What is the difference between crystalline matter and amorphous matter?
Crystalline- atoms and molecules are arranged in patterns that are repetative.
Amorphous- atoms or molecules do not have any long range order or regular pattern.
What is a mixture?
A substance that is composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules.
How can you classify a mixture?
Homogeneous or Heterogeneous
What is a pure substance?
Composed of a single type of atom or molecule
How can you classify a pure substance?
By elements or compounds
What is a solution?
a homogeneous mixture of two substances
What is mass?
is a measure of the amount of matter within it
What is density?
is the ratio of a substances' mass to volume. Depends on Temperature.
What is volume?
a measure of space
What is an intensive property?
a property that is independent of the amount of substance, such as density.
What is an extensive property?
a property that is dependent on the amount of substance, such as mass.
What is accuracy?
refers to how close the measured value is to the actual value.
What is precision?
refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are.
Mega (M)

Kilo (K)
deci (d)

centi (c)


micro (nu)

1m=.000001 (nu)m
nano (n)

pico (p)

1m=.000000000001 pm
What is the formula for C-->F?
What is the formula for C--> K?
C + 273.15
What is the formula for F-->C?
What is the Law of Definite Proportions?
All samples of a given compound, regardless of their source or how they were prepared, have the same proportions of their constituent elements.
What is the Law of Conservation of Mass?
IN a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
What is the Law of Multiple Proportions?
When two elements (A + B) form two different compounds, the masses of element B that combine with 1 g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers.
What is an electron?
a negativly charged, low mass particle present in all atoms.
What is a neutron?
A neutrally charged particle within the nucleus
What is a proton?
A positivly charged particle fround in the nucleus, nearly identical mass as neutron.
What is an atomic number and what is its symbol?
The number of protons in an atom's nuclues, symbol 'z'
What is the mass number and what is its symbol?
mass number= #protoms + # neutrons. Its symbol is A
What is an isotope?
Atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
What is natural abundance?
The relative percentage of a particular isotope in a naturally occurring sample with respect to other isotopes of the same element.
What is an element?
a substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances.
what is a pure substance?
a substance composed of only one type of atom or molecule.
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms joined chemically in a specific geomentral arrangement.
What is a compound?
a sunstance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions.
What is a mixture?
a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules that can be combined in variable proportions.
what is an atom?
a submicroscopic particle that constitues the fundamental building block of ordinary matter; the smallest identifiable unit of an element
What is a positivly charged ion called?
what is a negativly charged ion called?
What is a metal?
found on the lower left side and middle of periodic table, good conductors of heat and electriciy, maluable, often shiny, tend to lose electrons when undergo chemical changes
What is a nonmetal?
found on upper right side of periodic table, have varied properties, can be found in all states, usually poor conductors of heat and electricity, tend to gain elections when undergo chemical changes
What are metalloids?
found on the zigzag line that divides metals and nonmetals, mixed properties, several are considered to be semiconductors
Which elements are considered to be "main-group elements"?
Groups 1-8A
Which elements are the transition elements or metals?
The B groups
What is a family or group?
A column
What is a period?
A row
What is special about the nobel gases?
they are mostly unreactice, chemically stable, do not combine with other elements to form compounds
What are the alkali metals?
group 1A elements, reactive metals
What are the alkaline earth metals?
group 2A elements, also fairly reactive but not as much as 1A.
What are halogens?
group 7A elements, very reactive nonmetals
What is atomic mass?
the average mass of the isotopes that compose that element, weighted according to the natural abundance of each isotope. Atomic mass number is the number under the element's symbol
What is an anode?
the electrode in an electrochemical cell where oxidation occurs; electrons flow away from the anode.
What is a cathode?
the electrode in an electrochemical cell where reduction occurs; electrons flow toward the cathode.
What is percent by mass?
a unit for expression solution concentration in parts by mass with a multiplication factor of 100%.

(Mass solute/mass solution) x 100
What is light?
Light can be looked at in two ways. In terms of waves or in terms of particles.
What is electromagnetic radiation?
is Light, and a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields.
What is wavelength?
the distance in space between adjacent crests (or any two analogous points) and is measured in units of distance such as m, micrometer, or nm.
What is frequency?
the number of cycles (or wave crests) that pass through a stationary point in a givin period of time. Units are cycles per second or s^-1.

Hertz(Hz) defined as 1 cycle

inversely proportional to wavelength

What is the speed of light?
(c) 3.00 x 10^8 m/s
What is Plank's Constant?
(h) 6.626x10^-34 J x s
What is the emission spectrum?
Emission spectrum of an element is always the same and can be used to identify the element...It is a series of bright lines
What is a photon?
a "packet" of light, also known as a quantum of light
What is the photoelectric effect?
was the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them.