Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- has definite shape and volume
- has indefinite shape and a fixed volume
- has an indefinite shape and volume
Chemical reaction
one or more substances change into one of more new substances
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) all elements are composed of indivisible particles called atoms
2) Atoms of the same element are identical
3) Atoms can form simple whole number ratios called compounds
4) Chemical reaction occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged
Three subatomic particles:
Electron (negative)
Proton (positive)
Neutron (no charge)
Formula for finding the number of neutrons
Mass number - atomic number
atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Aufbau principle-
electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
Hunds rule
electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electons with the same spin direction as large as possible
Pauli exclusion principle
atomic orbital may describe at most two electons
Trends in atomic size
Size decreases across period
and increases down groups
Trends in ionization energy
Energy increases across period
Energy decreases down each group
Trends in Ionic Size
Size of cations/anions decreases across the period
Size increases down groups
Trends in Electronegativity
Increases across period
Decreases down groups
Valence electrons-
the elctorns in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atoms
How are cations formed?
atoms loss of valence electrons
How are anions formed?
Gain of electons
Ionic compounds have a higher
melting point
Covelant bond
atoms held together by sharing electrons
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
Molecular compound
compound composed of molecules
Coordinate covelant bond-
is a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
Polyatomic ion
tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as a unit (has positive or negative charge)
Sigma bond is formed when
two atomic orbitals combine to form a meleculat orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting two atomic nuclei
According to the VSEPR theory..
the repulsion between electron pairs casues molecular shapes to adjust so the electrons stay as far apart as possible
A polar bond is
a covelant bond with unequal sharing of electrons
A molecule with two poles
Van der Waals forces are
weak attractions
A binary compound is
composed of 2 elements that can be ionic or molecular
To name any binary ionic compound
place the cation name first, then the anion
The law of definite proportions states..
in samples of any chemical compound, the masses of the elements are always in the same proportions
Converting the number of particles to moles
moles= representative particles x (1 mol/ 6.02 x 10^23)
Mole-Mass Relationship
mass= # of moles x (mass/1 mole)
Calculating Volume at STP
volume= moles of gas x (22.4 L/ 1 mol)
Percent Composition of a Compound
% mass of element = (mass of element/mass of compound) x 100%
Steps to solving emperical formulas
1) Convert to moles
2) Divide each quanity by the smaller number of moles
3) Multiply by the smallest whole number that will convert both to whole number
Steps to SOlving a Mass-Mass Problem
1) Change the mass of G to moles of G by using the molar mass of G.
2) Change the moles of G to moles of W by using the mole ration form the balanced equation
3) Chamge the moles of W to grams of W by using the molar mass of W.
Gases are easily compressed because
of the space between the particles
Boyles law
for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure
Boyles Law formula
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
Charles Law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directily proportional to its Kelvin temperature if the pressure is constant
Charles Law Formula
(V1/T1) = (V2/T2)
Gay-Lussacs Law
Daltons Law formula
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 +...
Formula for finding the percent water in a hydrate
percent water= (mass of water/mass of hydrate) x 100