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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What makes up an atom?
Subatomic particles.
What are the three subatomic particles (and what are their charges)?
Protons (positive charge), neutrons (no charge), and electrons (negative charge).
What is the atomic number?
Atomic number refers to the number of protons in an atom.
What is the mass number?
Mass number refers to the number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
What is an element?
An element is a pure substance made up of only one time of atom.
Name four things about electrons.
Electrons are subatomic particles which have 1/2000th the mass of a proton or neutron.
Electrons have a negative charge (-).
Electrons move around the nucleus in defined regions called shells.
There is an equal amount of electrons in an atom as there is protons.
How do you find the amount of neutrons in an atom?
Mass number - Atomic number = Neutrons
What are the the three important rules of chemistry equations.
You must include all elements mentioned on the left side of the equation on the right side of the equation.
You must write subscripts next to each chemical.
You must use an arrow to represent the equals sign.
What are the four main subscripts?
Solid (s)
Gas (g)
Aqueous (aq)
Liquid (L)
What does a chemical equation look like?
Magnesium (s) + hydrogen chloride (aq) ---> magnesium chloride (aq) + hydrogen (g)
What is precipitate?
A solid or jelly-like substance that results from mixing two liquids.
What are the three categories in the Periodic Table?
Metals, non-metals, metalloids.
What is the definition of malleable?
Bendable
What is the definition of ductile?
Stretchable
What is the definition of lustrous?
Shiny
Name eight pieces of evidence that a chemical change has occured.
Temperature change
Colour change
Precipitate
Substance disappears
Gas
Mass change
Light
Crystals develop
What does exothermic mean?
Heat releasing (temperature going up).
What does endothermic mean?
Heat absorbing (temperature going down).
What is a chemical change?
A chemical change occurs when new substances are formed.
What is a physical change?
A physical change occurs when no new substances are formed.
What are the four different types of reaction?
Combustion reactions, precipitation reactions, combination reactions, breaking down reactions.
How would you try to find out what a particular colourless gas is when you don't know what it is?
I would test it with the glowing splint test first. If the splint reignited when held inside the test tube then I would know that it was oxygen. If not I'd do the limewater test. If the limewater turned milky (and precipitate might have formed) then it would be CO2. If not I'd do the pop test. If a pop was heard when the stopper was released and the match was held at the mouth of the test tube then it is hydrogen.
What is a combination reaction?
When reactants combine to form one new substance.
What is a breaking down reaction?
When one substance breaks down into a number of smaller ones. Thisis also called a decomposition reaction.
What is a precipitate reaction?
When a solid forms when two solutions are mixed.
What is a combustion reaction?
When a substance reacts with oxygen to form new substances. Heat and light may be released. A combustion reaction happens when you burn or explode something.
What is a compound?
A compound is made of more than one type of element and therefore more than one type of atom. A compound is created from a chemical reaction.
What are the four things that change the rate of a reaction?
Temperature (high = fast)
Concentration (high = fast)
Particle size (small = fast)
Catalyst (fast)
What is a chemical reaction?
A chemical reaction is the combining of two or more types of atoms to form a new compound from which you cannot retrieve the previous substances.
What does "Conservation of Mass" mean?
Mass of reactants always equals the mass of the products.