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20 Cards in this Set

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What is the structure of an atom?
Nucleus encasing protons and neutrons. Electrons in outer shells.
Define/Describe:
1. Proton
2. Neutron
3. Electron
1.positive charge; number represents the atomic number of the atom.
2.neutral particle; added to the number of protons is the atomic weight of the atom.
3.negatively charged particle; equal to the number of protons
1. Define Isotope
2. What is a cation?
3. What is an anion?
1.atom(s) with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
2. positive ions
3. negative ions
Define:
1. Molecule
2. Compound
1. two or more same or different atoms combined to form a new substance.
2. two or more different elements bonded together to form a new substance.
What are the three types of chemical bonds? Define each.
1. ionic bond: Atoms that lose or gain an electron and become an ion...charged either negative or positive.

2. covalent bonds: atoms joined by sharing electrons. No ions involved. More stable and stronger

3. Hydrogen bonds (intermolecular): this is not a true bond but a force/attraction between molecules. Weakest type of bond.
What are the two types of covalent bonds? Describe.
1. Polar covalent: unequal sharing of electrons...one positive end/one negative end.

2. Non-polar covalent: equal sharing of electrons. Overall neutral/NO POLES.

*Polar and non polar covalent compounds DO NOT MIX. ex) water and oil.
What is the structure of an atom?
Nucleus encasing protons and neutrons. Electrons in outer shells.
Define/Describe:
1. Proton
2. Neutron
3. Electron
1.positive charge; number represents the atomic number of the atom.
2.neutral particle; added to the number of protons is the atomic weight of the atom.
3.negatively charged particle; equal to the number of protons
1. Define Isotope
2. What is a cation?
3. What is an anion?
1.atom(s) with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
2. positive ions
3. negative ions
Define:
1. Molecule
2. Compound
1. two or more same or different atoms combined to form a new substance.
2. two or more different elements bonded together to form a new substance.
What are the three types of chemical bonds? Define each.
1. ionic bond: Atoms that lose or gain an electron and become an ion...charged either negative or positive.

2. covalent bonds: atoms joined by sharing electrons. No ions involved. More stable and stronger

3. Hydrogen bonds (intermolecular): this is not a true bond but a force/attraction between molecules. Weakest type of bond.
What are the two types of covalent bonds? Describe.
1. Polar covalent: unequal sharing of electrons...one positive end/one negative end.

2. Non-polar covalent: equal sharing of electrons. Overall neutral/NO POLES.

*Polar and non polar covalent compounds DO NOT MIX. ex) water and oil.
Define/Describe:
1. Inorganic compounds

2. Organic compounds
1. usually lack carbon, with the exception of carbon dioxide, oxygen and carbon monoxide.

2. contains carbon;larger and more stable; includes: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, ATP.
What are the three types of electrolytes? Describe.
1. Acids: substances that undergo ionization and releases hydrogen ions into a solution. PROTON DONORS (+)

2. Bases: substances when mixed with water undergo ionization and release hydroxide ions into solution. PROTON ACCEPTORS (-)

3. Salts: substances when mixed with water undergo ionization and release anions and cations that ARE NOT H+ or OH-
Describe where acids and bases fall on the ph scale. What is the ph of blood?
Ph scale= 0-14
Acids = 0-6.9
Bases = 7.1-14
7 is neutral

The ph of blood is between 7.35-7.45
What is a carbohydrate? What are the different types?
1. Carbohydrate: make up 2-3% of body. Simple sugars and starches.
a)Monosaccharides: basic unit. simple sugars. Ex)glucose
b)Dissacharides: two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis. ex) lactose and sucrose
c)Polysaccharides: long chains of monosaccharides. Form glycogen which is the storage form of glucose.
What are lipids? What are the different types?
1. Lipids: fats. 18-25% of body weight.
a)triglycerides: basic unti. Glycerol + 3 fatty acids. fats found in the diet.
b)phospholipids
c)steriods:
What are the functions of lipids?
energy reserves
form cell membrane
form hormones
cushioning/protection
insulation
What are proteins?
basic unit is the amino acid which are bonded together by peptide bonds (covalent) to form larger chains called polypeptide.

Collagen- most abundant protein in the body which forms connective tissue.
Keratin- skin, hair, nails
Define/Describe enzymes
1. Regulatory proteins

2. Speed up chemical reactions- necessary for metabolism.

3. Specificity- almost every reaction in the body has its own enzyme.