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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
concentration of substance X
moles of solute per liters of solution
chemical kinetics
area of chemistry that studies the rates at which reactions occur
average reaction rate
(M/sec) the change in the concentration of the products or reactants per time lapsed

change in concentration is negative for reactants and posiive for products (if for reactants take the opposite in the formula)

change in time is always positive

the answer is always positive
average reaction rate formula
change in concentration/change in time = (final concentration - initial concentration)/ (final time - initial time)
collision theory
in order for an atom or particle to react it must collide with another particle
effective collision
a collision that leads to the formation of products
ineffective collision
collisions that do not form products
factors for effective collisions
1. orientation of particles
2. energy of colliding particles
activation energy
(E subscript a) energy needed to react for effective collisions/ the difference between the energy of the activated complex and the reactants
activated complex
the transition state structure/ state at which the energy level is the greatest (very unstable)
transition state
temporary state in which reactant bonds are breaking and product bonds are forming (reasembles the reactants and products)
reaction rate factors
nature of reactants, temperature, concentration, surface area, catalyst

nature of reactants
increasing the number and complexity of bonds lowers the reaction rate

physical state= gases react more rapidly because they are moving faster so they collide more
higher temperatures increase the reaction rate by increasing the number of collisions
increasing the concentration increases the reaction rate
surface area
increasing the surface area increases the reaction rate
lowers the activation energy and increases the rate of reaction without being used up
they raise the activation energy and slow down the rate of a reaction (preservatives, etc.)
reaction rate law
an equation that relates the reaction rate to the concentration of substances

rate= k [A]superscript x [B] superscript y
(concentrations raised to some power)
reaction mechanism
a series of steps that leads from reactants to products
elementary step
an individual step of a reaction mechanism
intermediate products
products produced in one step of a reaction that serve as reactants in later steps
rate determining step
the slowest elementary step of the reaction mechanism