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39 Cards in this Set

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Law of definite proportions
the different samples of the same compound always contain its consttuent elements in the same propotion by mass.
Law of multiple proportions
if two elements can combine to form more than one compound the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers.
Law of conservation of mass
matter can be neither created nor destroyed.
atom
the basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination
subatomic particles
electrons, protons, and neutrons
Radiations
emission and transmission of energy through space in the form of waves.
Cathode Ray Tube - describe what happens in the tube
two metal plates are connected to a high-voltage source, the negatively charge plate, called the cathode, emits an invisible ray. The cathode ray is drawn to the positively charged plate called the anode where it passes through a whole and continues to go.
Electron
-Tell the 4 things about it.
-The negative charge of an electron is -1.76 x 10^8 (coulomb/grams) by J.J. Thompson
-Discovered by the cathode ray tube
-Millikan's oil drop experiment gave us mass as
9.10 x 10^3 g.
Radioactive
the spontaneous emission of particles and/or radiation.
Nucleus
a dense central core within the atom.
Protons
-The positively charged particles in the nuclueus
-Same quantity of charge as an electron (1.76 x 10^8 c/g)
-mass 1.67262 x 10^-24 g)
Neutrons
electrically nuetral particles having a mass slightly greater than that of protons.
-mass 1.67493 x 10^-24
Atomic Number (Z)
number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element. (also can equal the number of electrons in an atom)
Mass Number (A)
total number of neutrons and protons present in the nuclues of an atom of an element.
=# of protons + # of neutrons
=atomic number + # of neutrons
Isotopes
atoms that have the same atomic numbers but different mass numbers.
Periodic Table
a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are prouped together. They are arranged by atomic number.
Horizontal rows = periods
Vertical rows = groups (families)
Metal
Good conductor of electricity
Metaloids
Have properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals
Monotomic
Only 6 noble gases of the whole periodic table exist in nature alone by themselves. (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn)
Molecule
aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical gorces. (chemical bonds)
Compound
made up of two or more elements.
Diatomic Molecule
Contains only two atoms
(h2, N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, I2)
Polyatomic Molecules
Molecules containing more than two atoms (H20)
Ion
An atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge.
-Cation and Anion
Ionic Compound
formed from cations and anions
Chemical Formulas
Express the composition of molecules and ionic compounds in terms of chemical symbols.
Moleculars Formulas
shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance.
Allotropes
one of two or more distinct forms of an element
Structural formula
Shows how atoms are bomded to one another in a molecule.
H--O--H
Empirical Formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound.
Nomenclature
The naming of compounds
Organic Compounds
contrain carbon, usually in combination with elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Inorganic Compounds
All compounds that are not Organic
Can be divided into four categories, Ionic, molecular, acids and bases, and hydrates.
Binary Compounds
compounds formed from just two elements
Ternary Compounds
compounds consisting of three elements
Acid
substance that yields hydrogen ions when disolved in water.
Oxiacids
contain hydrogen, oxigen, and another element (the central element)
Base
substance that yeilds hydrooxide ions when disolved in water.
Hydrates
compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them.