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35 Cards in this Set

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Law of Definite Proportions
Specific Substances always contain elements in the same ratio by mass.
Law of Multiple Proportions
The ratio of masses of one element that combine with a constant mass of another element can be expressed in small whole numbers
Anode
positive electrode
Cathode
negative electrode
Cathode Ray
beam of electrons in gas discharge tube
Isotope
Atoms of the same element that differ in mass because of difference in neutron number
Atomic Number
number of protons in an atoms nucleus, always same in all atoms of one element
Nuclide
a particular kind of atom containing a definite number of protons and neutrons
Nucleon
particles that make up the atomic nucleus: protons and neutrons
Mass Number
total number of nucleons in an atom
Radioactivity
the phenomenon of rays being produced spontaneously by unstable atomic nuclei
Nuclear Force
the force that holds protons and neutrons together
Subatomic Particle
uparticles composing atoms
Lepton
light subatomic particles
Hadron
heavy subatomic particles
Antiparticle
mirror image of a particle , exact in every way with an opposite charge
Neutrino
a massless neutral particle associated with leptons
Quarks
theoretical particle believed to be elementary and a consituent of a hadron
Baryons
subatomic particle classified as a heavy hadron
Mesons
subatomic particle classified as a hadron
Gluons
theoretical massless particle exchanged by quarks
Alpha Particle
a helium nucleus
Beta Particle
an electron- or a positron+
Gamma Ray
a quantum of energy of very high frequency and very short wavelength
Spectroscopy
the study of the interaction of matter and radient energy
Spectrum
a unique set of wavelengths absorbed or emitted by a substance
Electromagnetic Energy
radiant energy; energy transferred by electromagnetic waves
Frequency
the number of complete wave cycles per unit of time
Hertz
the unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second
Wavelength
distance between two successive crests of a wave
Quantum Theory
the concept that energy is transferred in discrete units
Quanta, Quantum
discrete "packet" of energy
Photon
quantum of radiant energy
Ground State
state of lowest energy of a system
Atomic Mass
mass of an atom in atomic mass units; the average mass of the atom of an element