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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
continuous spectrum
the emission of a continuous range of frequencies of
electromagnetic radiation
excited state
a state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has
in its ground state
line-emission spectrum
a series of specific wavelengths of emitted light
created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is shined through a
prism
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation that has zero rest mass and carries
a quantum of energy
electromagnetic radiation
a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as
it travels through space (
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time,
usually one second
quantum
the minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an
atom
electromagnetic spectrum
all the forms of electromagnetic radiation
ground state
the lowest energy state of an atom
photoelectric effect
the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines
on the metal
wavelength
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
angular momentum quantum number
the quantum number that indicates
the shape of the orbital
magnetic quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the orientation
of an orbital around the nucleus
principal quantum number
the quantum number that indicates the main
energy level occupied by the electron
quantum theory
a mathematical description of the wave properties of electrons
and other very small particles
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
it is impossible to determine
simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other
particle
orbital
a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the
probable location of an electron
quantum number
a number that specifies the properties of atomic orbitals and
the properties of electrons in orbitals
spin quantum number
the quantum number that has only two possible values,
+1/2 and –1/2, which indicate the two fundamental spin states of an electron in
an orbital
Aufbau principle
an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can
receive it
highest occupied energy level
the electron-containing main energy level with
the highest principal quantum number
inner-shell electron
an electron that is not in the highest occupied energy
level
Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atom can have the
same set of four quantum numbers
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
Hund’s rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before
any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied
orbitals must have the same spin
noble gas
a Group 18 element (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and
radon)
noble-gas configuration
an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most
cases, by eight electrons