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22 Cards in this Set

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Kinetic Energy
the energy an object has because of its motion
Kinetic theory
a theory explaining the states of matter based on the concept that the particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion
Gas Pressure
the force exerted by a gas per unit surface area of an object' due to collisions of gas particles with the object
vacuum
a space where no particles of matter exist
Atmospheric pressure
the pressure exerted by air molecules in the atmosphere surrounding Earth, resulting from collisions of air molecules with objects
Barometers
an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
Pascal(Pa)
the SI unit of pressure
Standard Atmosphere(atm)
a unit of pressure; it is the pressure requited to support 700mm of mercury in a mercury barometer at 25 degrees C; this is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level
Vaporization
the conversion of a liquid to a gas or vapor
Evaporation
vaporization that occurs at the surface of a liquid that is not boiling
Vapor Pressure
the pressure produced when vapor particles above a liquid in a sealed container collide with the container walls; a dynamic equillibrium exists between the vapor and the liquid
Boiling Point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is just equal to the external pressure on the liquid
Normal Boiling Point
the boiling opint of a liquid at a pressure of 1 atmosphere
Melting point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid; the melting point of water is 0 degrees C.
Crystal
a substance in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in an orderly, repeating, 3-dimensional pattern
Unit Cell
the smallest group of particles within a crystal that retains the geometric shape of the crystal
Allotropes
one or two more different molecular forms of an element in the same physical state; oxygen (O2)and ozone (O3)
Amorphous Solids
a term used to describe a solid that lacks an ordered internal structure; denotes a random arrangement of atoms
Glasses
the optically transparent fusion product of inorganic materials that have cooled to a rigid state without crystalizing
Phase Diagram
a diagram showing the conditions at which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas
Triple Point
The point on a phase diagram that represents the only set of conditions at which all three phases exist in equilibrium with one another
Sublimation
the conversion of a solid to a gas or vapor without passing through the liquid state