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46 Cards in this Set

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Gas-->Solid
deposition
Gas-->Liquid
condensation
Liquid-->Solid
freezing
Liquid-->Gas
evaporation
Solid-->Liquid
melting
Solid-->Gas
sublimation
Melting Point
the temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid
Boiling Point
the temperature and pressure at which liquid and gas molecules are in equilibrium
fusion
transition between solid and liquid
enthalpy (both formulas)
q=mCpT

Q=nCT
gibbs energy formula
determines spontinaeity of the reaction

G=H-TS
catalyst
speeds up reaction

moves curve down on the graph that shows exothermicness
heat
vs
temp
heat: the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures

temp: the measure of the avg kinetic energy of the particles in an object

Temp=intensive property (temperature does not depend on the amount of the sample)

heat=extensive property(amount of energy transferred depends on amount of heat in the sample)
Enthalpy
the sum of the internal energy of a system

H
molar heat capacity
the energy as heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 mol of the substance by 1 K
Molar Enthalpy Change
the enthalpy change for one mole of a pure substance

molar enthalpy change=CT
molar enthalpy change=(moalr heat capacity)(temperature change)
H=q when...
you are heating or cooling of substances
endothermic reactions have _____ enthalpy changes

exothermic reactions have ______ enthalpy changes
positive

negative
Standard thermodynamic Temperature
25.00 degrees Celcius

used to standardize the enthalpies of reactions, both reactants and products have it
Calorimetry
measures enthalpy change (H)
Hess's Law
adding up the equations

the law that states that the amount of heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction does not depend on the number of steps in the reaction
entropy
the measure of the randomness or disorder of a system

thermodynamic property

J/k

S
a process is more likely to occur if it is accompanied by a _______ in entropy, that is S is ________
an increase

positive
Gibbs energy/free energy
the energy in a system that is available for work

G=H-TS
FILL IN A GIBBS TABLE

RIGHT NOW
H | S | G | Spontaneous?
-----------------------------
- | + | - | yes
- | - | +/- | only if T<H/S
+ | + | +/- | only if T>H/S
+ | - | + | never
H=CT
change in molar enthalpy when ONLY temperature changes
surface tension
the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface
intermolecular forces
the forces of attraction between molecules
enthalpy of fusion
the energy added during melting or removed during freezing
entropy of fusion
as a solid melts, particle motion increases as it transitions into the liquid state (or other way around)
triple point
the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium
order on a phase diagram (from left)
solid, liquid, vapor
critical point
the temperature and pressure at which the gas and liquid states of a substance become identical and form one phase
what are the units for Energy
Joules
under what conditions is heat (q) the same as enthalpy (H)
at constant pressure
in an endothermic reaction, do the products or reactants have lower energy
reactants
are products or reactants more stable in an endothermic reaciton?
reactants, because you have to give it energy for it to do anything
what does entropy tell you about a reaction?
entropy determines the randomness of the particles of a substance
what does it mean if the sighn for S for a reaction is
A.negative
B.positive
A.if it is negative it will be less likely to happen

B. If S is positive a process is more likely to occur


(see gibbs table)
What does Gibb's energy tell you about a reaction
it tells you the spontaneity of a reaction aka whether or not it will happen
If a reaction has a negative H and a positive S, what will the sign of G be? Is this reaction spontaneous?
negative

yes it will be spontaneous
is condensing an endothermic or exothermic process?`
exothermic process
hydrogen bond
bonds with forces of high electronegativity (right corner)
dipole-dipole
interactions between polar molecules
london dispersion force
the intermolecular attraction resulting from uneven distribution of electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles
vapor pressure
the partial pressure exerted by a vapor that is in equilibrium with its liquid state at a given temperature