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### 46 Cards in this Set

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 Gas-->Solid deposition Gas-->Liquid condensation Liquid-->Solid freezing Liquid-->Gas evaporation Solid-->Liquid melting Solid-->Gas sublimation Melting Point the temperature and pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid Boiling Point the temperature and pressure at which liquid and gas molecules are in equilibrium fusion transition between solid and liquid enthalpy (both formulas) q=mCpT Q=nCT gibbs energy formula determines spontinaeity of the reaction G=H-TS catalyst speeds up reaction moves curve down on the graph that shows exothermicness heat vs temp heat: the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures temp: the measure of the avg kinetic energy of the particles in an object Temp=intensive property (temperature does not depend on the amount of the sample) heat=extensive property(amount of energy transferred depends on amount of heat in the sample) Enthalpy the sum of the internal energy of a system H molar heat capacity the energy as heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 mol of the substance by 1 K Molar Enthalpy Change the enthalpy change for one mole of a pure substance molar enthalpy change=CT molar enthalpy change=(moalr heat capacity)(temperature change) H=q when... you are heating or cooling of substances endothermic reactions have _____ enthalpy changes exothermic reactions have ______ enthalpy changes positive negative Standard thermodynamic Temperature 25.00 degrees Celcius used to standardize the enthalpies of reactions, both reactants and products have it Calorimetry measures enthalpy change (H) Hess's Law adding up the equations the law that states that the amount of heat released or absorbed in a chemical reaction does not depend on the number of steps in the reaction entropy the measure of the randomness or disorder of a system thermodynamic property J/k S a process is more likely to occur if it is accompanied by a _______ in entropy, that is S is ________ an increase positive Gibbs energy/free energy the energy in a system that is available for work G=H-TS FILL IN A GIBBS TABLE RIGHT NOW H | S | G | Spontaneous? ----------------------------- - | + | - | yes - | - | +/- | only if TH/S + | - | + | never H=CT change in molar enthalpy when ONLY temperature changes surface tension the force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface intermolecular forces the forces of attraction between molecules enthalpy of fusion the energy added during melting or removed during freezing entropy of fusion as a solid melts, particle motion increases as it transitions into the liquid state (or other way around) triple point the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium order on a phase diagram (from left) solid, liquid, vapor critical point the temperature and pressure at which the gas and liquid states of a substance become identical and form one phase what are the units for Energy Joules under what conditions is heat (q) the same as enthalpy (H) at constant pressure in an endothermic reaction, do the products or reactants have lower energy reactants are products or reactants more stable in an endothermic reaciton? reactants, because you have to give it energy for it to do anything what does entropy tell you about a reaction? entropy determines the randomness of the particles of a substance what does it mean if the sighn for S for a reaction is A.negative B.positive A.if it is negative it will be less likely to happen B. If S is positive a process is more likely to occur (see gibbs table) What does Gibb's energy tell you about a reaction it tells you the spontaneity of a reaction aka whether or not it will happen If a reaction has a negative H and a positive S, what will the sign of G be? Is this reaction spontaneous? negative yes it will be spontaneous is condensing an endothermic or exothermic process?` exothermic process hydrogen bond bonds with forces of high electronegativity (right corner) dipole-dipole interactions between polar molecules london dispersion force the intermolecular attraction resulting from uneven distribution of electrons and the creation of temporary dipoles vapor pressure the partial pressure exerted by a vapor that is in equilibrium with its liquid state at a given temperature