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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemistry
study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and energy and changes that matter undergoes
Matter
anything that occupies space and has mass.
Energy
ability to do work
Why Chemistry
The knowledge of chemistry helps us to answer many questions that arise in our minds as we go through everyday life
Chemistry applies to almost everything
life processes in plants and animals
medical, pharmaceutical & food industries
making new materials
energy production
Chemical Research
careful experimentation & explanation
Hypothesis
a tentative explanation for an observation that provides a basis for experimentation
Experiment
the observation of natural phenomena carried out in a controlled manner so that the results can be duplicated and rational conclusions obtained
Law
concise statement that summarizes a wide range of experimental results & has not been contradicted by experiments
Theory
a tested explanation of basic natural phenomena; a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and the laws based on them
Substance
specific type of matter that has the same properties & the same composition throughout a sample
Extensive property
Depends on specific sample observed
Mass, Volume
Intensive property
Exactly the same for all samples
Boiling point, Melting point, color, density
Physical States
Solid, Liquid, Gas
Solid
Tightly packed/fixed arrangement
vibrate about average positions
rigid
small fixed volume for given mass
Liquid
Random arrangement
slightly compressible
fixed volume
no fixed shape
constant interaction
Gas
constant continous motion
No shape or volume
Takes shape of container
compressible
Physical property
property that can be observed without changing the substances present in the sample
Melting point, boiling point, color
Physical change
change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity. No new compounds are formed. melting ice, boiling water
Density
Mass per unit of volume
Liquids=mL
Gases=L
solids=g
Chemical property
the tendency to react and form new substances
Chemical reaction
a change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter
New compounds are formed
Reactant
undergoes change to produce products
Classification of matter
chemical and physical properties
matter
substances and mixtures
substances
elements and compounds
mixtures
Homogeneous (solution) and heterogeneous
element
pure substance
cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction or physical process into simpler substances
compound
two or more elements chemically combined
Mixture
can be physically separated into two or more substances
Heterogeneous
physically distinct parts
Homogeneous
similar properties throughout
Atomic or Periodic symbol
One or two letter symbol representing an element in the Periodic Table