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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a state of matter with uniform properties
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion
measure of average kinetic energy
definate shape, definate volume, particles do not move freely within the substance, arranged in a set, crystalline pattern, and vibrate, but remain in place
two or more molecular elements of the same element in the solid form (ex: diamond, and graphite are allotropes of carbon)
unit cell
smallest group of particles in a crystal that retains the crystal's geometric shape
amorphous solids
lack of an organized or crystalline structure
occurs when the particle vibrations in a solid become greater than the forces holding the particles together
melting point
the specific temperature at which a solid's crystal structure comes apart.
particles of a solid break free of the crystal and become a gas without becoming a liquid first.
no definate shape, definate volume. Substances with particles that move freely within the substance, but still have strong attractive forces for one another. particles have no predictable pattern- move around, collide, and change direction.
surface tension
an inward force that keeps liquids from flying apart
occurs when fast-moving liquid particles break free and become gas
(includes boiling and evaporation)
surface vaporization
deep (heat) vaporization
boiling point
the specific temperature at which a liquid's particles overcome surface tension and break free
vapor pressure
the force of the gaseous substance on the surface of a liquid
condensation point
same as boiling point
depends on: 1. what the substance is, 2. atmospheric temp., 3. the vapor pressure
phase changes
solid-to-gas=sublimation; gas-to-solid=deposition; solid-liquid=melting; liquid-solid=freezing; gas-liquid=condensing; liquid-gas=vaporization
no definate shape, no definate volume; substance w/ particles that move very freely
kinetic theory of gases
1. gas is composed of tiny particles that have negigible volume and no attraction for one another
2. gas particles move rapidly in random patterns
3. gas particles move in straight lines until they collide with something
4. collisions are elastic: no loss/ transfer of energy
gas pressure
the force exerted by a gas per unit of surface area of an object- the faster an object is moving, the harder it hits something: greater force, greater pressure.
atmospheric pressure
results from the gas held by the earth's gravity
normal boiling point
the temp. at which a substance boils at sea-level atmospheric pressure
"normal pressure"=1.0 atm=101.3kPa=760mmHg
variables affecting gases
pressure (kPa)
volume(L or mL)
Temperature (K [k=C+273])
n- number of moles
Boyle's Law
for a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the VOLUME of the gas varies inversely w/ the PRESSURE of the gas
Formula - P1V1=P2V2
Charles' Law
For a given mass of gas at constant pressure, the VOLUME of the gas increases or decreases directly with the TEMPERATURE of the gas
Formula - V1/T1=V2/T2
Absolute zero
0 K K= -273 C
K= C+273 C= K-273
Gay-Lussac's Law
For a given mass of gas at constant volume, the PRESSURE of the gas varies directly with the TEMPERATURE of the gas.
Formula - P1/T1=P2/T2
Combined Gas Law
*when needed, ignore anything held constant and re-arrange to fit problem!
Ideal Gas Law
(includes moles)
incorporates pressure, temperature, volume, and moles
uses a constant ehich allows for all the different units involved.
Ideal gas constant
R= 8.31*(L*kPa/K*mol)
*other "R" values for different units
Ideal Gas law formula
Avogadro's Hypothesis
equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles
at STP, 22.4 L of gas contains (6.02*10^23) particles
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
In a mixture of gases, the pressure of each component gas is called the partial pressure
the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures
P(total)=P1+P2+P3.... [basic formula is just adding]
Graham's Law
Crowded particles bump into one another and bounce. If there is an area of lower concentration(less crowded) the particles will spread out in the space
Diffusion and Effusion are closely together
the heavier a gas particle is, the slower it diffuses/effuses
the passive movement of particles from a high concentration region to a low concentration region
the escape of gases through a tinny hole in the gas container