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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bond energy
energy required to break the bond
ionic bonding
formed when an atom that looses electrons easily reacts with an atom that has a high affinity for electrons
coulumb's law
energy of interaction between a pair of ions
bond length
distance where the energy is minimal
covalent bonding
electrons are shared by the nuclei
polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons
electronegativity
the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
dipole moment
molecule that has a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
isoelectronic ions
ions containing the same number of electrons
lattice energy
the change in energy that takes place when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic solid
localized electron model
a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms
lewis structure
shows valence electron arranged among the atoms in the molecule
resonance
invoked when more than one valid lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule
formal charge
difference between the number of valence electrons on the free atom and the number of valence electrons assigned to the atom in the molecule
molecular structure
three dimensional arrangement of atoms in the molecule
VSEPR model
the structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing electron-pair replusions
hybridization
the mixing of native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding
hybrid orbitals
when a atom adopts a different set of atomic orbitals from those it has in the free state
sigma bond
covalent bond where the electron pair is shared in an area centered on a line running between the atoms
pi bond
parallel p orbitals can share an electron pair which occupies the space above and below a line joining the atoms
molecular orbitals
can hold tow electrons with opposite spins and the square of the molecule wave function indicates electron probability
sigma molecular orbitals
MO1 and MO2, bonding, and antibonding
bonding molecular orbital
lower in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
antibonding molecular orbital
higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
bond order
difference between the number of bonding electrons and the number of antibonding electrons divided by two
pi molecular orbitals
designated as pi2p for the bonding MO and pi2p* for the antibonding MO
paramagnetism
causes the substance to attracted into the inducing magnetic field
diamagnetism
causes the substance to be repelled from the inducing magnetic field