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49 Cards in this Set

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Molecular Formula
actal number of atoms; ex: H20
empirical formula
gives simplist ratios of all atoms in molecule; ex: HO
Formula weight - Covalent and Ionic
atomic weight times number of atoms
1 Mole of any element equals
same numer of molecules
mass for one mole equals
molar mass - mass in grams of 1 grams of any substance - g/mol
1 mole equals
6.022 X10 23 (avogard's ) atoms or molecules - also equals molar mass
1 mol weight in grams
Depends on element; total molar mass

Metal mol always in atoms; Gasses in molecules
1 mol =
6.022 x 10 23 atoms/molecules = molar mass in grams
calculate mol in 2 ways
1 mol = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms/molecules

1 mol - molar mass in grams
to convert grams to molecules
divide by the molar mass
To convert mol to grams
multiply by molar mass
To find oxygen atoms in 500 mg of aspirin, c 9 H 8 O 4
-change mg to grams: .500 g c9h8o4
-chamge g to mol: 1 mol = ? grams - 180.17
-change mols to atoms/molcules: 1 mol 6.022 x 20 34 molecles
Properties of Acids
Taste sour
corrosive
Litmus paper turns red
start with H+ except H2O
ex: H+ + H2)O+ (hydronium ion)
breakdown called ionization/dissociation
Properties of bases
tasteless
slippery
cleaner
corrosive
litmust paper turns blue
releases OH-
bases are:
compounds that accept protons (H+) (proton acceptor)
acids are:
compounds that donate H ion (proton) to other compounds; (proton donors)
Bases can only be
- or neutral
Self-ionization of H2O
H20 + H20 --> H30+ + OH-
Neutral solution
1.0 x 10 -7 M
pH scale
1 to 14;
1 unit of change in pH = 10 x more/less acidic
Higher pH - acid
less acidic
Lower pH - acid
stronger acid
Higher pH - base
more acidic
Lower pH - base
less acidic
Neutral pH
pH 7
pH scale
0-------------7------------14
<--acidic neutral base--->
strength strength
Buffer -
weak acid + conjugate base OR
weak base + conjugate acid
Formula weight (FW)
sum of the atomic weights in atomic mass units (amu) of all the atoms in the compounds formula; used for both ionic and molecular compounds
Molecular weight (MW)
used for covalent compounds only; used for covalent compounds only
Mole
he amount of substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, or ions as there are atoms in eaxtly 12 g of cqrbon-12; always contains the same number of formula units; scale factor for atoms and molecules
Avogadro's number
the number of formula units in a mole; a value that must be determined experimentally; value 6.02214199 X 10 23 formula units per mole
molar mass
the mass of one mole of any substance; formula weight of the substance expressed in grams;
Find moles
Molar mass of compound in ratio to amount of entire compound; ex:
36.0g H2) x (1 mol H20 divided by molar mass of 18 g H20) = 2.0 mol H20
Convert moles to grams; calculate the number of grams in a beaker
Use the molar mass of the compound X(grams divided by mol) = grams of the compound
chemical equation
chemical forumlas for the reactants and products with an arrow to show direction of the reaction proceeds;
states of reactant
(g) gas; (l) liquid; (s) solid; aq (aqueous - dissolved in H20)
Balacing the equation
all atoms present at the start of the reaction are still present at the end of the reaction
acid
substance that produces H3O+ ions in aqueous solution; proton donor
base
substance that produces OH+ ions in aqueous solution; proton acceptor
hydronium ion
an H+ ion in water immediately combines with an H20 molecule produces this; H3O+
strong acid
one that reacts completely or almost completely with water to form H3O+ ions
weak acids
smaller concentration of H3O+ ions
strong acids
HCl HBr HI HNO3 H2SO4 HCIO4
strong bases
LiOH NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2
acid-base reaction
proton transfer reaction
a solution is acidic if its pH is less than
7
a solution is basic if its pH is greater than
7
a solution is neutral if its pH is equal to
7
buffer
a solution whose pH chanes very little when small amounts of H3O+ or OH- ions are added to it