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49 Cards in this Set

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 Molecular Formula actal number of atoms; ex: H20 empirical formula gives simplist ratios of all atoms in molecule; ex: HO Formula weight - Covalent and Ionic atomic weight times number of atoms 1 Mole of any element equals same numer of molecules mass for one mole equals molar mass - mass in grams of 1 grams of any substance - g/mol 1 mole equals 6.022 X10 23 (avogard's ) atoms or molecules - also equals molar mass 1 mol weight in grams Depends on element; total molar mass Metal mol always in atoms; Gasses in molecules 1 mol = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms/molecules = molar mass in grams calculate mol in 2 ways 1 mol = 6.022 x 10 23 atoms/molecules 1 mol - molar mass in grams to convert grams to molecules divide by the molar mass To convert mol to grams multiply by molar mass To find oxygen atoms in 500 mg of aspirin, c 9 H 8 O 4 -change mg to grams: .500 g c9h8o4 -chamge g to mol: 1 mol = ? grams - 180.17 -change mols to atoms/molcules: 1 mol 6.022 x 20 34 molecles Properties of Acids Taste sour corrosive Litmus paper turns red start with H+ except H2O ex: H+ + H2)O+ (hydronium ion) breakdown called ionization/dissociation Properties of bases tasteless slippery cleaner corrosive litmust paper turns blue releases OH- bases are: compounds that accept protons (H+) (proton acceptor) acids are: compounds that donate H ion (proton) to other compounds; (proton donors) Bases can only be - or neutral Self-ionization of H2O H20 + H20 --> H30+ + OH- Neutral solution 1.0 x 10 -7 M pH scale 1 to 14; 1 unit of change in pH = 10 x more/less acidic Higher pH - acid less acidic Lower pH - acid stronger acid Higher pH - base more acidic Lower pH - base less acidic Neutral pH pH 7 pH scale 0-------------7------------14 <--acidic neutral base---> strength strength Buffer - weak acid + conjugate base OR weak base + conjugate acid Formula weight (FW) sum of the atomic weights in atomic mass units (amu) of all the atoms in the compounds formula; used for both ionic and molecular compounds Molecular weight (MW) used for covalent compounds only; used for covalent compounds only Mole he amount of substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, or ions as there are atoms in eaxtly 12 g of cqrbon-12; always contains the same number of formula units; scale factor for atoms and molecules Avogadro's number the number of formula units in a mole; a value that must be determined experimentally; value 6.02214199 X 10 23 formula units per mole molar mass the mass of one mole of any substance; formula weight of the substance expressed in grams; Find moles Molar mass of compound in ratio to amount of entire compound; ex: 36.0g H2) x (1 mol H20 divided by molar mass of 18 g H20) = 2.0 mol H20 Convert moles to grams; calculate the number of grams in a beaker Use the molar mass of the compound X(grams divided by mol) = grams of the compound chemical equation chemical forumlas for the reactants and products with an arrow to show direction of the reaction proceeds; states of reactant (g) gas; (l) liquid; (s) solid; aq (aqueous - dissolved in H20) Balacing the equation all atoms present at the start of the reaction are still present at the end of the reaction acid substance that produces H3O+ ions in aqueous solution; proton donor base substance that produces OH+ ions in aqueous solution; proton acceptor hydronium ion an H+ ion in water immediately combines with an H20 molecule produces this; H3O+ strong acid one that reacts completely or almost completely with water to form H3O+ ions weak acids smaller concentration of H3O+ ions strong acids HCl HBr HI HNO3 H2SO4 HCIO4 strong bases LiOH NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2 acid-base reaction proton transfer reaction a solution is acidic if its pH is less than 7 a solution is basic if its pH is greater than 7 a solution is neutral if its pH is equal to 7 buffer a solution whose pH chanes very little when small amounts of H3O+ or OH- ions are added to it