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### 24 Cards in this Set

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 How does atomic radius vary across a period? Down a family? Why? across period: decreases b/c of addition of protons down family: increases b/c of addition of energy levels How does I.E. vary across a period? Down a family? Why? across period: increases b/c size decreases Down family: decreases b/c size increases How does e- affinity vary across a period? Down a family? across: gets more neg. down: gets less neg. How do boiling/melting points vary across a period? Down a family? across: increase from families 1-6 and decrease from 6-12 down: increase How do you determine the largest/smallest atomic radius? closer to Fr the bigger, closer to He the smaller--NO EXCEPTIONS How do you determine the largest/smallest I.E.? closer to He the bigger, closer to Fr the smaller--watch out from families 2-13 & 15-16 How do you determine the largest/smallest e- affinity? closer to He the bigger, closer to Fr the smaller--throw out families 2, 15,18 How do you determine the highest/lowest boiling & melting points? closer to W(74) the higher they are How do you determine the most reactive metal or nonmetal? He: most reactive nonmetal Fr: most reactive metal How do you determine what e- removed from an atom will result in a huge jump in I.E. and why? add 1 to the last digit of the family # b/c you're going to the next lowest energy level ex: Be: 3 Which families have positive e- affinities & which ones have negative? positive: 2 & 18 negative: all the rest IONIZATION ENERGY the energy needed to remove the most loosely held e- of an atom in the gas phase ELECTRON AFFINITY the energy released or absorbed when we add an e- to a neutral atom (opp. of I.E.) ALKALI METALS Family 1 ALKALINE METALS Family 2 HALOGENS Family 17 NOBLE GASES Family 18 (including He) TRANSITION ELEMENTS d sublevel elements (Fam. 3-12) ISOELECTRONIC elements/ions which have the same # of e-s For pos. and neg. e- affinities, is the neutral element or neg. ion more stable? Pos. < neutral element Neg. > neutral element ex: F- vs. F Kr vs. Kr- Know what charge ions all of the families & transition elements will form & how to give e- configurations. Ex: Mo: [Kr]5s^2 4d^4 Mo2+: [Kr]4d^4 *take e-s from valence shell Know how to identify an ion from its e- configuration. X3+ = [Ne]3s^2 3p^6 X3+ = 18e- X = 21e- X = Sc What determines the chemical properties of a neutral element or ion? valence e-s What do large (-) e- affinities mean? large (-) e- affinities = more exothermic = more energy released