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24 Cards in this Set

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How does atomic radius vary across a period? Down a family? Why?
across period: decreases b/c of addition of protons
down family: increases b/c of addition of energy levels
How does I.E. vary across a period? Down a family? Why?
across period: increases b/c size decreases
Down family: decreases b/c size increases
How does e- affinity vary across a period? Down a family?
across: gets more neg.
down: gets less neg.
How do boiling/melting points vary across a period? Down a family?
across: increase from families 1-6 and decrease from 6-12
down: increase
How do you determine the largest/smallest atomic radius?
closer to Fr the bigger, closer to He the smaller--NO EXCEPTIONS
How do you determine the largest/smallest I.E.?
closer to He the bigger, closer to Fr the smaller--watch out from families 2-13 & 15-16
How do you determine the largest/smallest e- affinity?
closer to He the bigger, closer to Fr the smaller--throw out families 2, 15,18
How do you determine the highest/lowest boiling & melting points?
closer to W(74) the higher they are
How do you determine the most reactive metal or nonmetal?
He: most reactive nonmetal
Fr: most reactive metal
How do you determine what e- removed from an atom will result in a huge jump in I.E. and why?
add 1 to the last digit of the family #
b/c you're going to the next lowest energy level

ex: Be: 3
Which families have positive e- affinities & which ones have negative?
positive: 2 & 18
negative: all the rest
IONIZATION ENERGY
the energy needed to remove the most loosely held e- of an atom in the gas phase
ELECTRON AFFINITY
the energy released or absorbed when we add an e- to a neutral atom (opp. of I.E.)
ALKALI METALS
Family 1
ALKALINE METALS
Family 2
HALOGENS
Family 17
NOBLE GASES
Family 18 (including He)
TRANSITION ELEMENTS
d sublevel elements (Fam. 3-12)
ISOELECTRONIC
elements/ions which have the same # of e-s
For pos. and neg. e- affinities, is the neutral element or neg. ion more stable?
Pos. < neutral element
Neg. > neutral element

ex: F- vs. F
Kr vs. Kr-
Know what charge ions all of the families & transition elements will form & how to give e- configurations.
Ex:
Mo: [Kr]5s^2 4d^4
Mo2+: [Kr]4d^4
*take e-s from valence shell
Know how to identify an ion from its e- configuration.
X3+ = [Ne]3s^2 3p^6
X3+ = 18e-
X = 21e-
X = Sc
What determines the chemical properties of a neutral element or ion?
valence e-s
What do large (-) e- affinities mean?
large (-) e- affinities = more exothermic = more energy released