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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
represented by q, the energy that transfers from one object to another becuase of a temperature difference btwen them
a process that absorbs heat from the surrondings
the amount of heat it take to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1º c
specific heat
branch of chemistry that is concerned with heat changes during chemical reactions
used to measure heat involved in a chemical process
the substance that is under study
represented delta H, the heat content of a system at standard pressure.
in any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed
law of conservation of energy
the heat realeased by one mole of a substance in freezing, going from a liquid to solid, at a constant pressure.
molar heat of solidification
the amount of heat realased when one mole of vapor changes to a liquid
molar heat of condensation
cooking an egg is exonthermic or endothermic
water condensing is exonthermic or endothermic
water vaporizing
a hot pack
1 calories = ___ joule
if an object has a lower specific heat, what does it mean
it means the object gets hotter quickly.
if an object has a higher specific heat, what does it mean.
it means the object won't get hot quickly.
which has the higher specific heat 100g of iron or 10g or iron
they have the same specific heat
a process that absorbs heat is _________ process
if u wre to touch the flask in which an endothermic reaction were occurring
the flask would probably feel coller than before the reaction started.
endothermic reaction has heat on which side of the equation
the reaction side
an exothermic reaction has heat on which side of the equation
the product side
waht is the valid units for specific heat
calories over gram times Cº
if the heat involved in a chemical reaction has a negative sign, it means
heat is lost to the surroundings
on what principle does calorimetry depend
law of conservation of energy
the amount of heat absorebed by a melthing solid ______ the amount of heat lost by a solidifying liquid
the vaporization of a liquid is
endothermic process
when snow melts, what happens to the surrounding air
it gets cooler
lines of colored light obtained through a prism
Quantum mechanical model
modern description of electrons in atmos
ground state
a postion of electrons in their lowest enegry state
excited state
electrons gain energy and can jump to a higher energy state
a region around the nucleus that can hold at most 2 electrons
Aufabu principle
electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
Hiesenburng uncertarinty
it is impossibel to know the postition and velocity of a particle at the same time
how many electrons can exist on the 3rd energy level
which oribital is shaped like a daisy or four leaf clover
d orbital
how many orbitasl make up the "p" sublevel
why does Cu, Ag, Au have diffrent electron configuration?
because they are one electron away t obecome stabel in teh d orbital so the s orbital gies one to the d orbital
the formula 2n^2 represents the________
max electrons the can exist
the percent probability of finding an electron within the region of an orbital is _______
an orbital can have at most
what is next in order of filling after 6s
state Hund's rule
when electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters eahc orbital until all orbitals contain one electron with their spins to the next.
the letter d in the symbol 3d represents
the number 3 in the symbol 3d represents what
principal enegy level
how many electrons can fit in the f subshell
which scientist developed the quantum mechanical model
why are flame tests useless to determine metal ions present in a mixture of metal ions. expalin
becuase the flame color is not very clear and that can be mixed to produce mixture of colors.
half the distance btwn the nuclei
atmoic radius
the group @a elements
alkaline earth metals
the veritical columns of the periodic table
the nonmetallic elements of Group 7A
elements in which the outermost s and p sublevels are filled
noble gases
the tendency for the atmos of an element to attract electons when they are chemically combined with another elements
the horizontal rows of the periodic table
the energy required to overcome the atrraction of th enuclear charg and remove an electron from a gaseous atom
ionization energy
the group 1A elements
alkalie metals
an arragnement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, which reveals a periodic patter in their physical and chemical properties
periodic table
the moder periodic tabel is arranged in order of inceasing
atomic number
the elements in group 1A and 7A and Group 0 make up the _____
represntative elements
which of the following is true concerning the noble gases
*their outermost s and p sublevels are filled.
*they belong to Group 0.
*they are somtimes referred to as the inert gases.
what is the number of electrons in the outermost occupied energy level of an element in Group 5A
the elements that contain electrons in f sublevels are referred to as
inner transition metals
as you move down a group of the periodic table, atomic size generally
as the number of electrons added to the same principle energy level increases, atomic size generally:
atoms share electrons to form__________ bonds
in a hydrogen molecule, the hydrogen atoms form a ______ covalent bond in which 2 atoms share 1 pair of electrons.
_________ formulas are chemical formulas that show the arrangement of atoms and shared electrons in molecules and polyatomic ions where shared pairs are reqresented as dashes or lines.
a covalent bond involving a sharing of two pairs of electrons is a ___________ bond.
a covalent bond involving a sharing of three pairs of electrons is a ______ bond.
tripel bond
covalent bonds are formed between a ___________ and a __________
nonmetal, nonmetal
ionic bonds are formed between a ____________ and a ___________.
metal and nonmetal
some atoms form non-polar voalent bonds with the same type of atom. these are called _______ molecules.
diatomic halogen molecules
subtracting ________ values allows us to determine more exactly wheter a bond is nonpolare covalent, polar covalent or ionic.
most ionoic compounds exist as _______
the melting point of ionic compound is _________.
the melting point of covalent copound is
the solubility of ionic compound is
the type of intermolecular forces are attraction btwn polar molecules are called
Vand der Waals forces
the weakest attration between molecules
Disperasion forces
dispersion- weakest of all molecular interactions, and is caused by the motion of number of electrons.
dipole interactions
occurs when polar molecules are attracted to one another.
the electrons in the highest occuppied energy level of an atom are called
a diagram that shows only the valence electrons of an element is referred to as an
electron dot diagram
an ________ bond refers to the electrostatic forces of attraction that hold the cations and anions together
negatively charges ions are called
postiviely charged ions are known as
a negative ion formed when a halogen atom gains an electrons is also known as a _____ ion.
the _____ rule states that when forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.
_______ usually form ionic bonds with metals
non metals
A _________ bond consists of the attraction of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal ions.
the overal lcharge of an ionic compound is
metals ______ electricity
the ____ _____ of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal.
coordination number
an _______ is a mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.
the most important alloy today is
what are the two ways to determine the number of valence electrons
* look at the element's electron configuration.
* the group number.
why are the noble gases not chemically reactive
because they already have 8 electrons in their valence shell
characteristics of ionic compound
*formula unit
*trnsfer of one or more electrons btwn atoms.
*metallic and nonmetallic.
*high melthing point.
*usually high solubility in H20.
*good conductor.
characteristics of covalent compound
*sharing of electron pairs btwn atoms.
*solid, liquid or gas.
*low melting point.
*high to low solubility in H2o
*poor to nonconducting
3 factors that will increase the rate at which a solute dissolves
pressure, temperature, size of the substance
solutions are normally ________ mitures
what is the term for a solution where the maximum amount of solute is dissolved for a given amount of solvent at a certain temperature
saturated solution
two liquids who dissolve in each other are called
two liqids that wont dissovle in each other
the solubility of a solid tends to ________ with increased temperature.
the solubility of a gas tend to ______ with increased temperature.
units of molarity are
moles of soulute over liters of solution
hydro -ic
ous acid
-ic acid