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56 Cards in this Set

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Substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means
The smallest unit of an element that retains its characteristic properties
The subatomic particle with a positive charge and its count represents and element's atomic number
The neutral subatomic particles withtin the nucleus.
The core of an atom that holds the protons and neutrons.
The negatively charged subatomic particles that rotate around the nucleus forming a cloud.
The result of the combination of two or more different types of atoms in a fixed ratio.
Chemical Reaction
The altering of atoms to form a whole new different substance like a compound.
Bonds form by an unequal sharing of electrons.polar molecules have both a positive end and a negative end.
Hydrogen Bond
Are bonds formed by polar molecules when a hydrogen bonds to a nitrogen, oxygen or flourine atom.
The ability of substances like water molecules to stick together.
The ability of substances like water molecules to stick to other substances or surfaces.
Capillary Action
The ability of water due to its adhesive and cohesive forces to rise up the roots, trunks, and branches of trees.
Heat Capacity
The amount of heat required to change the temperature of a substance by 1 degree.
Acidic Substances
Subtances with PH lower than 7 on the PH scale.
Basic Substances
Substances with PH above 7 on the PH scale
Neutral Substances
Substances with a PH of 7 on the PH scale. Pure water is a neutral substance
Alkaline solutions
Solutions formed by the releasing of hydorxide ions by a substance in solution.
PH Scale
A scale that measures the acidicity or alkalinity of a substance.
Organic Compounds
Compounds containing a skeleton of carbon atoms.
Inorganic Compounds
Compounds that do not contain a skeleton of carbon atoms.
Organic compounds that contain Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio 1:2:1.
The monomers or buliding blocks of carbohydrates
Sugars formed by the bonding of two monosaccharides where the hydrogen from one of the monosaccharides bonds to the hydroxyl group (-OH) of another monosaccharide.
Formed by many repeated units of simple sugar. examples include cellullose, starch, and glycogen.
The most common type of sugar. It is produced during photosynthesis by green plants.
A monosaccharide witht the same molecular formular as glucose. They are Isomers of each other.
Glycosidic Bond
The bonds between two monosaccharides that hold them together to form a disaccharide like maltose.
Dehydration Synthesis
The the holding of two monosaccharides together by a glycosidic bond to form a disaccharide.
The breaking of bonds by adding water.
Sugars made up of alpha glucose and stored by plants in structures called plastids.
Sugars made up of Beta glucose and make up the outer covering of plants.
Sugars stored in the liver or muscle cells of animals for later use
The structures in which starch is stored in plants.
Amino Acids
The Buliding blocks or monomers of proteins
Functional Groups
Distinctive groups of atoms that play a large role in determining the chemical behavior of the compound they are part of.
The result of the joining of two amino acids.
Peptide Bond
The bond between two amino acids.
A group of amino acids joined together.
Formed once a polypeptide twists and folds on itselft to form a three dimensional structure. They contain Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Organic compounds consisting of Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but not in the 1:2:2 ratio.
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol. It is also called a triglyceride.
Ester Bonds
Bonds formed between a glycerol and fatty acids.
a type of lipid that contains two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and one charged hydrophilic phosphate "head".
Water fearing.
Water loving
Nucleic Acids
They are the fourth class of organic compounds and contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphate.
The building blocks or monomers of nucleic acids
It is a nucleic acid that contains genes, the hereditary "blueprints" of all life.
The nucleic acid that is essential for protein synthesis.
Oparin and Haldine
The two scientists who proposed that the primitive atmosphere contained the following gases: Methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water.
Stanley Miller
Along with Harold Urey were the first to simulate the conditions of primitive earth in the laboratory. This gave Oparin and Haldine substantial support.
Harold Urey
Along with Stanley Miller were the first to simulate the conditions of primitive earth in the laboratory. This gave Oparin and Haldine substantial support.
Living organisms that rely on organic molecules for food.
Living organisms that have a way of making their own food.
Heterotroph Hypothesis
The believe that the earliest lie forms were most likely heterotrophs, relying on other organic molecules for energy.