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23 Cards in this Set

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Democritus
proposed the first idea of the atom around 430 b.c. substances are made up of tiny, indestructable, indivisible, particles called "atomos" (philospher)
John Dalton
Proposed the first atomic theory in 1803
*all matter is made of indestructable invisble particles
*All atoms of the same element are the same
*all atoms of different elements are different
*atoms combine in simple whole # ratios to form compounds
Lavoisier
1788 Law of Conservation of Mass: Mass cannot be created or destoryed only rearranged
Proust
1794 Law of Definite Proportions: A pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by mass (water always h2o)
Dalton Law of multiple proportions
the same two elements can combine in different ratios to form different compounds and the ratios to different compounds and the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combines with a fixed mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole #
Gay-Lussac
1804 Law of Combining Volumes: at constant temp. and pressure volumes of reacting gas and gaseous products are in small whole # ratios
Avogadro
Avogadro's Hypothesis: Equal volumes of gas under the same conditions have the same # of particles
JJ Thomson
1897 used cathode ray tubes to discover the electron and proton(chocolate chip cookie model)
Robert Milikan
1911 performed "oil drop experiment" to determing the charge of an electron
James Chadwick
1937 Berryllium bombared with alpha particles; revised theory to say atoms are not indestrucatble but made up of small particles
Henry Mosley
Used x-rays experiments to discover the atomic number of an element
Henri Becquerel
1896 discovered that uranium ores emit radiation resembling x-rays and that it exposed film
Marie and Piere Curie
1900 isolated two new elements; polonium and radium from uranium
Ernest Rutherford
studied radiation emitted by the substances especially alpha particles. Directed gold foil experiemnt, found the nucleus
Einstein
1905 famous equation E=mc2 shows that a small amount of mass can be converted into tremendous amounts of energy during a nuclear reaction.
Neil Bohr
1913 another assistant of Rutherford imprved the atomic model by attempting to answer the question of why electrons are not pulled into the nucleus
Quantum Model
positive core with an electron cloud surrounding it
Quantum Theory
Bohr based his atomic model on this, proposed by max plank in 1900. Energy is not emitted continuously but in small packets called quantia
Spectroscopy
the method of studying the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation
types:radio, micro, infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
Principal Quantum
Distance from the nucleus (n) always less than 7
Second Quantum number
sublevel/shape (l=n-1)
s=sphere p=peanut
s 0 n=1
p 1 n=2
d 2 n=3
f 3 n=4
Third Quantum Number
(M) orbital/ direction
only 2 electrons can occupy an orbital at a time
s-1
p-3
d-5
f-7
Fourth Quantum Number
(S) spin of electron (+-1/2)
(clockwise or counterclockwise)