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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
2 main groups of science
biological and physical
biological science is concerned with?
the study of living things
ex. botany, microbiology..
physical science is concerned with?
deals with natural relationships around us.
ex. physics, chemistry..
name 3 types of chemistry
organic- study of carbon compounds
inorganic- without carbon compounds
biochemistry- study of substances and processes occurring in living things.
qualitative?
collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data by observing what people do and say.
quantitative?
refers to counts and measures of things.
state the 3 states of matter.
solid liquid gas
condensation
gas to liquid
boiling
liquid to gas
sublimation
solid to gas
physical properties
depends on the substance itself.
chemical properties
depends on the action of substance, in the presence of another substance.
extensive?
depends on the amount of matter. ex. mass, length, volume
intensive?
does not depend on the amount of matter. ex. color, density, conductive, etc..
what are three types of energy?
mechanical, electrical, and heat
name 2 types of mechanical energy and how they differ.
potential- stored energy
kinetic- motion energy
law of conservation of matter and energy.
matter and energy and interchangeable
total amount of energy and matter in the universe is constant
endothermic?
a reaction that absorbs energy (cold)
exothermic?
a reaction that releases energy (hot)
classifications of matter and how they differ
mixture- combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined.
pure substance- a sample of matter having a uniform and unchanging composition
homogeneous?
uniform throughout
heterogeneous?
not uniform throughout
element?
a substance that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means; a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons.
how many know elements?
111
how many naturally occurring elements
92
above # 92 are synthetic called what?
transuranium elements
transuranium?
having a atomic number greater than 92
give 3 classes of elements
metals- Calcium Ca, Zinc Zn
metalloids- Boron B, Silicon Si
nonmetals- Carbon C, Argon Ar
what are the 2 parts of a measurment
number and scale (unit)
what are the standard units for length, mass, and volume
length- m metric ruler
mass- g balance
volume- L liters
fahrenheit
f= (c x 1.8)+ 32
celsius
c= f-32/ 1.8
kelvin
k= c + 273.15
boiling point of h20
f=212
c=100
k=373.15
freezing point of h20
f=32
c=0
k=273.15
absolute zero?
where all molecular motion stops.
0 on the kelvin scale.
matter-
anything that takes up space and has mass
solid-
a state of matter that has its own shape and volume
liquid-
a state of matter that takes the shape of its container but has a definite volume.
gas-
a state of matter characterized by no definite shape or volume.
energy-
the ability to do work
siginificant figures-
the numbers recorded in a measurement
density-
amount of mass per unit volume
dimensional analysis-
A technique that involves the study of dimensions of physical quantities.
Ion-
an atom or group of atoms having an electrical charge because of a loss or gain of electrons.
Isotope-
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
density-
is also a property of matter that is often used as an identification tag for substances
democritus?
he said matter is composed of small indivisible particles called atoms.
john dalton?
the development of chemistry has been based on his atomic theory.
atoms-
the smallest particle of an element that retains the properties of the element.
subatomic particles
protrons, carries a + charge; found in the nucleus.
neutrons, carry no charge; found in the nucleus
electrons, carries a - charge; found outside the nucleus; has little or no mass
nucleus
also carries the mass of the atom
atomic size-
is measured in angstroms
the identity of an element depends on what?
on the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. they call this the finger print of the atom.
element-
a substance that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means; also a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons.
atomic number-
number of protons of an atom; always the whole number on the periodic table.
atomic mass-
weighted average of the isotopes of the atom; the decimal number on the periodic table.