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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Element
Substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance
Atom
the simplest unit of an element that retains the element’s characteristics
Nucleus
Contains a unique number of protons and about the same number of neutrons
Electrons
Surround the nucleus
Atomic Number
Number of protons found in the nucleus of an element
Uncharged Atom
State of an atom when the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
Electrons
Have a charge of -1
Protons
Have a charge of +1
Neutrons
Has no charge at all
+4
The number of protons in the nucleus hold a positive charge equal to this number. If the nucleus contains 4 protons, the charge is….
Negatively Charged Electrons
The positive charges of the nucleus attract an equal number of….
Orbital.Electron Shell
Electrons travel freely in a 3D space called an…
1
The quantum number of the energy level closest to the nucleus is…
Least Energy
The energy level closest to the nucleus has the…….related to it.
Valence Shell
The outermost occupied energy level of an element
Covalent Bond
Bond between atoms formed when atoms share electrons
Covalent bond
Strongest type of chemical bond
Molecule
Two or more atoms held together by shared electrons
Compound
Formed when two or more different atoms bond together chemically to form a unique substance (H2O, CH2)
Ions
Charged Atoms
Positive Ion
Atom that loses one or more electrons
Negative Ion
Atom that gains one or more electrons
Ionic Bond
Positive and negative ions are attracted to each other in this type of bond. Weaker than Covalent bond
Endothermic Reaction
Chemical reactions that require an input of energy
Exothermic Reaction
Chemical reactions that release energy
Law of thermal Dynamics
States that matter and energy can neither be created or destroyed
Acid
A chemical that donates protons (H+ ions) when dissolved in water
Base
A chemical that accepts protons (H+ ions) when dissolved in water
pH(Potential of Hydrogen)
the measurement of H_ ions in a solution
Neutral
A pH of 7 is ………
Acidic
A pH below 7 is……..
Basic (Alkaline)
A pH above 7 is……..
Carbohydrates
Organic compound made of varying combinations of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
2:1
The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrates is always……..
Monosaccharide
Basic sugar unit which usually contains 3 to 7 carbon atoms plus attached oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
Hexoses
The most common monosaccharides (six carbon sugars, usually in a ring)
Glycogen
A polysaccharide composed of many joined glucose units. Many animals use this as a short-term storage molecule for energy. It is found in the muscle and liver tissue of mammals.
Lipids
Organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is always greater than 2:1. These will not dissolve in water.
Proteins
Large unbranched chains of amino acids.
Watson:Crick
These two scientists discovered DNA and RNA structures in the 1950s.