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80 Cards in this Set

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what is the best way to show the existence of the tiny particles that make up matter?
use certain experiments as indirect evidence to varify the particulate theory
give 4 examples of the experiments that can be used
diffusion, dilution, brownian motion and osmosis
what does the particulate theory state?
all matter is made up of particles
what does the kinetic theory state?
that all particles have the energy to move all the time.
what is diffusion?
the movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration until they are equally distributed
what is dilution?
the addition of solvent to reduce the concentration of a mixture. This is mainly seen in liquids
the random haphazard seen mainly in gases is known as what?
brownian motion
what is osmosis?
the movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration across a semi-permeable membrane
Why are the particles in a solid closely packed together?
so that the forces of attraction between them are very strong and free movement of the particles is restricted
give two other characteristics of solids
they are arranged in a fixed pattern of vibrating masses and they also have a definite volume and shape.
what is the difference between osmosis and diffusion?
In osmosis, the paricles move across a semi-permeable membrane while in diffusion there is no membrane
what are the similarities between dilution and diffusion?
the concentration is changed during both processes
what are the similarities between osmosis and diffusion
in both processes, particles are moved from an area of high to low concentration
how is a liquid formed?
when a solid is heated, the molecules begin to vibrate faster as they absorb more energy.The particles become more mobile as they crystal structure breaks down. it is now known as liquid
give two characteristics of liquids
they have no definite shape but a definite volume
true/false. The particles in a liquid are more compressible than in a solid and have more energy
true
what is evaporation?
this is when liquid is heated and some particles obtain enough energy to escape into the atmosphere
give 3 characteristics of gases
they have no definite volume or shape but they fill the entire container into which they are placed
gases can be compressed into what?
liquids
what is the opposite of melting?
freezing
the melting point is equal to what?
the freezing point
when water is heated some of the particles become what?
vapour
give another name for freezing
solidification
the boiling point is equal to what?
the condensation point
what is the opposite of melting?
freezing
the melting point is equal to what?
the freezing point
when water is heated some of the particles become what?
vapour
give another name for freezing
solidification
the boiling point is equal to what?
the condensation point
what is the opposite of boling?
condensation
the minute particles of matter are called?
atoms
name the three basic types of particles that an atom consists of
protons, neutrons and electrons
negatively charged particles that orbit or revolve in energy levels or shells are known as?
electrons
positively charged particles are known as what?
protons
what are neutral particles called?
neutrons
give the two things that make up a nucleus in an atom
protons and neutrons
what is the heavy part of the atom called?
nucleus
the first energy level
the second energy level
the third energy level
the fourth energy level
2 electrons
8 electrons
8 electrons
8 electrons
In what year did Newlands point out that when elements were placed in order of increasing atomic mass, every eighth element was found to be similar?
1864
what was this relationship known as?
The Law of Octaves
In what year did meyer and mendeleev publish a new table of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic mass and were classified into families which emerged becasue of periodic repetition of similar properties
1869
what did meyer use to develop his table?
atomic volume and density(physical properties)
what did mendeleev use?
valency and acid base formation(chemical properties)
the periodic table is divided into two main groups; vertically called?
groups
horizontally called?
periods
what is used to write the electronic configuration
the electrons
what does the last number in the electronic configuration show?
how many electrons are in the last or valence shell
what does the last number tell?
the column(group) the element is in
True/False.
The electrons with the same energy level occupy the same shell.
true
What is the arrangement of the electrons in the shells known as....?
the electronic configuration of the atom
What are atoms compared to?
carbon-12
Why is carbon-12 used?
It is found all over the world and in large stable quantities
Atomic mass units used to be called...
Daltons
What is the difference between mass and weight?
Mass is the amount of substance while weight is the force exerted on a substance by gravity
Name some places carbon is found in
-air -all living material
-soil
-rocks
-water
Another name for hydrogen is....
proton
Carbon is a _______ solid.
-black
What is an element made up of?
atoms of one kind and is the smallest entity that can be found in the lab
In what year did Newlands point out that when elements were placed in order of increasing atomic mass, every eighth element was found to be similar?
1864
what was this relationship known as?
The Law of Octaves
In what year did meyer and mendeleev publish a new table of elements arranged in order of increasing atomic mass and were classified into families which emerged becasue of periodic repetition of similar properties
1869
what did meyer use to develop his table?
atomic volume and density(physical properties)
what did mendeleev use?
valency and acid base formation(chemical properties)
the row with lanthanum is known as what?
lanthanids
What is each element given for convenience?
a symbol,often comes from the first two letters of the elements name-
The latin name for the element Sodium is ..
Natum
The latin name for the element Lead....
Plumbum
the last number tells what?
which column(group) the element is in and this is written in roman numerals
the number of shells or digits tells what?
which row of period the element is in and this is written in arabic numerals
the central region between groups two and three contain what?
the transition elements
the two rows at the botton of the table are what?
man-made
the row with lanthanum is known as?
lanthanids
the row with the actinium is called?
actinids
the step-like line separates what
the metals(leftside) and the non metals(right side)
some elements near the line are called what
metalloids because they exhibit properties similar to both metals and non-metals
examples are
carbon, silicon, phosphorus and sulphur
group one is often called
alkali metals
group two is known as
alkaline earth metals
group seven is called
halogens
group zero is known as the
rare gases, inert elements or noble gases