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30 Cards in this Set

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Molecular mass
sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule
mole
represents the amount of a substance
mole
equal to the amount a substance measured out to be its atomic mass, molecular mass, or formula mass in grams
moles of different atoms
all have different masses, cause the size of each individual particle is different, but similar in that they each contain the same number of particles
molarity
measurement for a solution concentration
symbol for molarity
M
molarity(M)=?
moles of solute/ liter or (dm to the third)
1dm to the third=
1L
1cm to the third=
1mL
percentage Compostion
gives the relative amount (percentage) of each element present within the compound
percentage composition=
# atoms of an elementx atomic mass of the element/ formula mass of the compound all times 100
empirical formula
indicates the smallest whole number ration of the elements of each atom present in a compound
molecular formula
indicates the actual munber of each atom present in a compound
to determine the empirical formula of a compound step 1
determine the # of grams of each element in the compound( if percentage composition is given assume a 100g sample)
to determine the empirical formula of a compound step 2
convert the grams of each element to moles by dividing each by its atomic mass
to determine the empirical formula of a compound step 3
determine the mole ration of the elements by dividing the moles of each element by the smallest # of moles
to determine the empirical formula of a compound step 4
use the mole ration to write the empirical formula of the compound
finding molecular formula step 1
determine the empirical formula and calculate its mass
finding molecular formula step 2
divide the mass of the molecular mass( the mass of the molecular formula) by the mass of the empirical formula.
finding molecular formula step 3
multiply the empirical formula by your answer to #2
Hydrates
compounds that have water molecules attached to their crystal structure
hydrates step 1
calculate the mass of water and convert it moles
hydrates step 2
calculate the mass of the anhydrous salt (dried salt) and convert it to moles
hydrates step 3
divide your answer in 2 by your answer in 1 to determine the # of water molecules for each salt particle in the hydrate
Another name for the mole
Amadeo Avogadro's rule
diatomic elements
come in pairs
What are the diatomic elements?
H O N Cl F I Br
dilute
more water
concentrated
less water
si prefixes
kilo k 1000
deci d .1
centi c .01
milli m .001
micro u .000001
nano n .000000001