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105 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is an Acid?
Any substance that donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another sunstance.
What is a Base?
Any chemical that accepts i hydrogen ion in its structure.
Is a Hydrogen ion a proton, neutron, or electron?
Proton
Why are Mols important?
•It allows us to weigh atoms in the lab.
•It allows us to compare amounts in chemical reactions.
How do you figure out the amount of atoms or molecules in a mol? (avagadros #)
6.02 X 10^23
What is chemistry?
The scientific study of structure, propertier, and reactions of the chemical elements and that compounds they form.
•The study of matter and the transforms it undergoes.
What is matter?
Anything that occupies space.
What are atoms?
The basic building block of matter.
Who first proposed the atom?
Democritus in 500 BC
What is contained in the Atomic nucleus?
Nucleons
What are protons?
Positively charged particles in the atomis nucleus. (p+)
What are neutrons?
Electrically neutral part in an atomic nucleus. (n^0)
What are electrons?
Negatively charged particlds in an atom (e-)
Write the general equation for neutralization.
Acid + Base --> Salt + Water
Who said that all matter consists of tiny particles and elements characterised by mass of atom?
Dalton
Who provided the first direct evidence of atoms?
Robert Brown (1827)
Who made "plum pudding"-(electron suspended in positively charged field)
JJ Thompson
Who discovered positive charge and most mass contained in the nucleus electrons orbit around the nucleus?
Rutherfor (1911)
Who discovered that electrons orbis the nucleus in successive orbical shekks based on energy leveld "quantized shells" (You usually look at this model but Shrodinger made more indefinite models)
Bohr (1913)
Who made "electron clouds"- similar to shells, electrons travel in waves?
Schrodinger (1926)
What are elements?
A fundamental material consisting of only one type of atom.
Who organized elements and listed them in the periodic table?
Dimitri Medeleev (1869)
What else did Dimitri Medeleev do?
Arranged elements into 7 groups with similar properties. The properties of elements "were periodic functions of their atomic weights."
What does the atomic symbol tell you?
It designates the element.
•First letter always capitalized.
•Second letter always lower case
What does the Atomic weight tell you?
The total number of protons and neutrons. (# of nucleons)
What does the atomis number tell you?
# of protons in the nucleus.
•# or protons = # of electrons; charges balance
What are isotopes?
Atoms whose nuclei have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons. (carbon, Iron)
Who determined that an electrons distance from the nucleus depended on its potential energy?
Bohr (There are distance energy levels called shells/ orbitals)
How many electrons do the 1st 4 shells hold?
1- 2e-
2- 8e-
3- 18e-
4- 32e-
How much can each subshell (sub divisions within a shell) hold?
s- 2e-
p- 6e-
d- 10e-
f- 14e-
What is valence e-P
number of electrons in outer most shell.
What are characteristics of metals?
elements are luster, opaque, high density and good conductors of electricity and heat, maleable, and ductile.
what are characteristics of non-metals?
poor conducts or heat and electricity; can be transparent and are not malleable nor ductile.
What are metalloids?
have properties or metals and nonmetals, also called semiconductors.
Which way and how many periods are in teh Periodic table?
Horizontal/ 7
Which way and how many groups are there in the periodic table?
vertical/ 18
Do size of element increase and decrease from left to right?
decrease
Do sizes of elements in groups increase or decrease from top to bottom?
increase
What do all elements in a period have the same of?
Same atomic shells
What do all elements in the same group have the same number of?
electrons in outter most shell.
What are characteristics of alkali metals?
- 1e- in outermost shell, many used for soaps, very reactive, may even explode in water
What are characteristics of alkaline-earth metals?
- 2 e- in outermost shell, fire-resistant
What are characteristics of transition metals?
- less reactive with water than alkaline metals, used for structures use in technology
What are characteristics of chalcogens?
- 6 e- in outer shell, form ores
What are characteristics of halogens?
-7 e- in outer shell, for salts, often react with metals
What aare characteristics of noble (inert)- gasses?
-8 e- in outer shell, non-reactive gases
What is a pure substance?
A pure substance has a constant, defines composition and cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical mean.
What are the two types of substances?
Elements and Compounds
What are elements?
pure substances that are made of only one type of atom. The periodic table is a table containing all elements.
What are compounds?
pure substances that are made of more that one type of atom, and can be decomposed or broken down into its elements by chemical means.
What are mixtures composed of?
more that one element and/or compound
What are the two types of mixtures?
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
In a homogeneous mixture are the particles evenly distributed?
YES!
What else can a homogeneous mixture be called?
A solution
Can you seperate the parts?
NO!
What are some examples of homogeneous mixtures?
Milk, air, salt, water, white gold, and pennies
Are heterogeneous mixtures evenly distributed?
NO!
What are some examples of heterogeneous mixtures?
pizza, orange juice, sandy water, salad dressing
What are solutions?
Homogeneous mixture, uniform throughout
Can solutions be seperated?
NO!
What ate the 2 types of solutions?
Solute and Solvent
What is the solute?
May be solid, liquid, or gas
- The substance being dissolves and evenly distributes among the molecules of the solvent
What is the solvent?
The thing that does the dissolving.
The larger quantity
What is the universal solvent?
Water
What does the molatiry show?
Moles per liter
What happens in a saturated solution?
No more solute can be dissolved.
What happenes in an unsaturated solution?
has not reached the limit of solute.
What happens in a supersaturated solution?
solvent has dissolved more that it should.
How do you find out the percent by mass
mass of solute/ mass of solution X 100
How do you find molarity?
moles of solute/ volume of solution in liters
suspension
- a liquid substance where the particles are floating around in the liquid
Are all gems a compound, element, solution, or heterogeneous mixture?
Solution
What are the 3 factors that affect the rate of solubility?
1. Agitation
2. Increase surface areas
3. Temperature
To dissolve a solid faster does the temperature need to be higher or lower?
Higher
To dissolve a gas do you need a higher or lower temperature?
Lower
What is the equation for the dissociation of water?
H2P --> O+H
What was Arrhenius's definititions of acids and bases?
The Arrhenius definition of acid: generates [H+] in solution.
The Arrhenius definition of base: generates [OH-] in solution.
What is the symbold hor a hydroxide ion?
OH+
What is Bronsted-Lowery's definition for acids and bases?
The Bronsted-Lowery definition of acid: anything that donates a [H+] (proton donor)
The Bronsted-Lowery definition of base: anything that accepts a [H+] (proton acceptor)
Properties of acids
Acids taste sour (never use the taste test, however!)
Acids are electrolytes
Acids are corrosive (they "eat away" some metals)
Acids have a pH less than 7
Acids neutralize bases
Properties of bases
Bases feel slippery
Bases are electrolytes
Bases are corrosive, poisonous, and can cause severe burns
Bases have a pH greater than 7
Bases neutralize acids
The general form of nuetralization
Acid + Base ‡ Salt + Water
Hcl + NaOH ‡ NaCl + H2O

Acid+base=neutralize
Examples for each pH value
0-Hcl
1-Stomach acid (most acidic)
2-Lemon juice
3-vinegar
4-Soda
5-Rainwater
6-Milk
7-Pure water (neutral)
8-Egg whites
9-Baking soda
10-Tums
11-Ammonia
12-Mineral Lime Ca(OH)2
13-Drano
14-NaOH (most basic)
synthesis
A + B --> AB
Decomposition
AB --> A + B
Single Displacement
A + BC --> AC + B
Double Displacement
AB + CD --> AD + CB
Combustion
Oxygen combines with another compound to form water and carbon dioxide. These reactions are exothermic, meaning they produce heat. An example of this kind of reaction is the burning of napthalene:
Does an acid or base make a hydroxide ion?
Base
Does an acid or base make a hydrogen ion?
Acid
Concentrated
there is more solute then solvent
Would you expect to find more dissolved oxygen in ocean water around the North Pole or the equator?
North pole - lower temperatures --> dissolving gas
If HCl is neutralized by NaOH, which salt is produced?
Table salt- NaCl ( cross out H20 on left) ‡ you know it equals H20
How can you tell if a reaction is exothermic or endothermic?
If a reaction is exothermic the temperature will rise. If it is endothermic the temperature will drop.
What are chemical properties?
- Combonation of acids and bases
- Reactions with oxygen and other active gases.
-Determined by the reaction of substances
Products
Newly formed substance (right of the arrow)
Chemical change/reaction
When the atoms of a substance are rearranged
-Required new substances to have a chemical composition different from original one
Reactants
Chemicals that react together (the left of the arrow)
What are some physical properties?
color, odor, density, hardness, structure, solubility, melting poing, boiling point
Types of chemical reactions
synthesis
decomposition
single displacement
double displacement
combustion
In a chemical equation --> means...?
Yields or produces
Describe two ways to see if a sugar solution is saturated or not.
If a sugar solution is saturated if you put more sugar in it and it sits on the bottom and its visible the solution is saturated.
Compound
Pure substances that are made of more that one type of atom, and can be decomposed or broken down into its elements by chemical means.
Mixture
Composed of more that one element and/or compound- Different mixtures of the same substances can have a different composition- 2 types are homogeneous and heterogeneous.
Solution
Homogeneous mixture- cannot be separated out by filtration- gems are solutions