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### 48 Cards in this Set

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 theory proposed by Boltzmann and Maxwel to explain the properties of gases kinetic molecular theory name the four components of the kinetic molecular theory 1. particles of a gas are in constant, random motion 2. gases consist of small particles separated by empty space with no signicicant attractionor repulsion 3. gases move in straight line 4. collusions of particles are perfectly elastic/ no loss of energy measure of average kinetic energy of gas particles temperature law for gases, lots of space between particles density large amount of space between particles, little attraction or repulsion compression and expansion little attraction diffusion and effusion movement of one material through another diffusion movement through a tiny opening effusion grahams law effusion state graham's law the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass force per unit of area pressure device for measuring pressure barometer device for measuring pressure of an encolsed gas manometer the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture Dalton's law of partial pressure Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3+ . . . Pn Dalton's law of partial pressure attractive forces in ionic, covalent and metallic bonds are ____________ intramolecular weaker than intramolecular or bonding forces Intermolecular weak forces that result from temperoary shifts in density of the electron could (also called London forces) dispersion forces neighboring polar molecules align themsleves to attract opposite changes in other dipole-dipole forces a double dipole-dipole attration between hydrogen and another small, higly electronegative elecment (upper right periodic table) hydrogen bond can be described through the KMT particles flow, constant motion of particles density is explained by intermoleculer forces difficult to compress Liquids classified as fluids gases and ligquids diffusion of ______ is slower than that of gases (intermoleculer forces) liquids measure of the resistance to flow viscosity stronger attractive forces, higher viscosity higher temperature equal lower viscosity measure of the inward pull of particles by particles in interior Surface tension name some breakers of surface tension soap, detergent what are surfactants? things that break down surface tension (soap, detergent, ) attraction between similar molecules cohesion attraction between different molecules adhesion can use KMT solids motion of particles is restriced to vibration in place solids particles densely packed density a solid whose molecules or ions are arranged in crystals crystalline solids name the crystalline solids (7) cubic tetragonal orthorhombric triclinic rhombehedral monoclinic hexagonal phase changes that require energy melting (needs added energy a.e. heat) difficult to determine melting point amorphous solids process by which a liquids changes to a gas or vapor vaporization process where vaporization occurs at only surface of a liquid evaporation the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid vapor pressure the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals atmospheric pressure boiling point the process by which a solid changes to a has withouth becoming a liquid sublimation phase changes that release energy 1. condensation 2. deposion 3. freezing point process by which a gas or vapor becomes a liquid condensation process by which a gas or vapor becomes a solid without becoming a liquid depositon the temperature at wchich a liquid becomes crystalline solid freezing point the point on aphase diagram that represents the temperature and pressure of which 3 phases of a substance co exist triple point