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48 Cards in this Set

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theory proposed by Boltzmann and Maxwel to explain the properties of gases
kinetic molecular theory
name the four components of the kinetic molecular theory
1. particles of a gas are in constant, random motion
2. gases consist of small particles separated by empty space with no signicicant attractionor repulsion
3. gases move in straight line
4. collusions of particles are perfectly elastic/ no loss of energy
measure of average kinetic energy of gas particles
temperature
law for gases, lots of space between particles
density
large amount of space between particles, little attraction or repulsion
compression and expansion
little attraction
diffusion and effusion
movement of one material through another
diffusion
movement through a tiny opening
effusion
grahams law
effusion
state graham's law
the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
force per unit of area
pressure
device for measuring pressure
barometer
device for measuring pressure of an encolsed gas
manometer
the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases in the mixture
Dalton's law of partial pressure
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3+ . . . Pn
Dalton's law of partial pressure
attractive forces in ionic, covalent and metallic bonds are ____________
intramolecular
weaker than intramolecular or bonding forces
Intermolecular
weak forces that result from temperoary shifts in density of the electron could (also called London forces)
dispersion forces
neighboring polar molecules align themsleves to attract opposite changes in other
dipole-dipole forces
a double dipole-dipole attration between hydrogen and another small, higly electronegative elecment (upper right periodic table)
hydrogen bond
can be described through the KMT particles flow, constant motion of particles
density is explained by intermoleculer forces
difficult to compress
Liquids
classified as fluids
gases and ligquids
diffusion of ______ is slower than that of gases (intermoleculer forces)
liquids
measure of the resistance to flow
viscosity
stronger attractive forces, higher
viscosity
higher temperature equal
lower viscosity
measure of the inward pull of particles by particles in interior
Surface tension
name some breakers of surface tension
soap, detergent
what are surfactants?
things that break down surface tension (soap, detergent, )
attraction between similar molecules
cohesion
attraction between different molecules
adhesion
can use KMT
solids
motion of particles is restriced to vibration in place
solids
particles densely packed
density
a solid whose molecules or ions are arranged in crystals
crystalline solids
name the crystalline solids (7)
cubic
tetragonal
orthorhombric
triclinic
rhombehedral
monoclinic
hexagonal
phase changes that require energy
melting (needs added energy a.e. heat)
difficult to determine melting point
amorphous solids
process by which a liquids changes to a gas or vapor
vaporization
process where vaporization occurs at only surface of a liquid
evaporation
the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid
vapor pressure
the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals atmospheric pressure
boiling point
the process by which a solid changes to a has withouth becoming a liquid
sublimation
phase changes that release energy
1. condensation
2. deposion
3. freezing point
process by which a gas or vapor becomes a liquid
condensation
process by which a gas or vapor becomes a solid without becoming a liquid
depositon
the temperature at wchich a liquid becomes crystalline solid
freezing point
the point on aphase diagram that represents the temperature and pressure of which 3 phases of a substance co exist
triple point